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Reactions, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 6 articles

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Review
Effects of Structure and Particle Size of Iron, Cobalt and Ruthenium Catalysts on Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis
Reactions 2021, 2(1), 62-77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reactions2010006 - 19 Mar 2021
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Abstract
This review emphasizes the importance of the catalytic conversion techniques in the production of clean liquid and hydrogen fuels (XTF) and chemicals (XTC) from the carbonaceous materials including coal, natural gas, biomass, organic wastes, biogas and CO2. Dependence of the performance [...] Read more.
This review emphasizes the importance of the catalytic conversion techniques in the production of clean liquid and hydrogen fuels (XTF) and chemicals (XTC) from the carbonaceous materials including coal, natural gas, biomass, organic wastes, biogas and CO2. Dependence of the performance of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis (FTS), a key reaction of the XTF/XTC process, on catalyst structure (crystal and size) is comparatively examined and reviewed. The contribution illustrates the very complicated crystal structure effect, which indicates that not only the particle type, but also the particle shape, facets and orientation that have been evidenced recently, strongly influence the catalyst performance. In addition, the particle size effects over iron, cobalt and ruthenium catalysts were carefully compared and analyzed. For all Fe, Co and Ru catalysts, the metal turnover frequency (TOF) for CO hydrogenation increased with increasing metal particle size in the small size region i.e., less than the size threshold 7–8 nm, but was found to be independent of particle size for the catalysts with large particle sizes greater than the size threshold. There are some inconsistencies in the small particle size region for Fe and Ru catalysts, i.e., an opposite activity trend and an abnormal peak TOF value were observed on a Fe catalyst and a Ru catalyst (2 nm), respectively. Further study from the literature provides deeper insights into the catalyst behaviors. The intrinsic activity of Fe catalysts (10 nm) at 260–300 °C is estimated in the range of 0.046–0.20 s−1, while that of the Co and Ru catalysts (7–70 nm) at 220 °C are 0.1 s−1 and 0.4 s−1, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Carbonaceous Materials to Fuels and Chemicals)
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Article
Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Study of Different Carbon Materials as Cobalt Catalyst Support
Reactions 2021, 2(1), 43-61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reactions2010005 - 10 Mar 2021
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Abstract
In this work, cobalt Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalyst supported on various carbon materials, i.e., carbon nanotube (CNT), activated carbon (AC), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and carbon nanofiber (CNF), were prepared via impregnation method. Based on TGA, nitrogen physisorption, XRD, Raman [...] Read more.
In this work, cobalt Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalyst supported on various carbon materials, i.e., carbon nanotube (CNT), activated carbon (AC), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and carbon nanofiber (CNF), were prepared via impregnation method. Based on TGA, nitrogen physisorption, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD, ICP, SEM, and TEM characterization, it is confirmed that Co3O4 particles are dispersed uniformly on the supports of carbon nanotube, activated carbon and carbon nanofiber. Furthermore, the FT catalyst performance for as-prepared catalysts was evaluated in a fixed-bed reactor under the condition of H2:CO = 2:1, 5 SL·h−1·g−1, 2.5 MPa, and 210 °C. Interestingly, the defined three types of carbon materials exhibit superior performance and dispersion compared with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. The thermal stability and pore structure of the five carbon materials vary markedly, and H2-TPR result shows that the metal–support interaction is in the order of Co/GO > Co/CNT > Co/AC > Co/CNF > Co/rGO. In brief, the carbon nanofiber-supported cobalt catalyst showed the best dispersion, the highest CO conversion, and the lowest gas product but the highest heavy hydrocarbons (C5+) selectivity, which can be attributed to the intrinsic property of CNF material that can affect the catalytic performance in a complicated way. This work will open up a new gateway for cobalt support catalysts on various carbon-based materials for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Carbonaceous Materials to Fuels and Chemicals)
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Article
Low-Temperature Methane Partial Oxidation over Pd Supported on CeO2: Effect of the Preparation Method and Precursors
Reactions 2021, 2(1), 30-42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reactions2010004 - 17 Feb 2021
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Abstract
The catalytic production of syngas by the partial oxidation of methane (POM) was investigated over Pd supported on ceria (0.5–2 Pd wt.%) prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and by mechanochemical methods. The performance of the Pd/CeO2 catalyst prepared by milling CeO2 [...] Read more.
The catalytic production of syngas by the partial oxidation of methane (POM) was investigated over Pd supported on ceria (0.5–2 Pd wt.%) prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and by mechanochemical methods. The performance of the Pd/CeO2 catalyst prepared by milling CeO2 and Pd acetate was superior to that prepared by milling CeO2 and Pd nitrate and to Pd/CeO2 prepared by impregnation from Pd acetate. The best catalytic activity of the Pd/CeO2 catalyst prepared from CeO2 and Pd acetate was obtained by milling at 50 Hz for 5 min. Two-step combustion and reforming reaction mechanism were identified. Remarkably, methane conversion increased progressively with Pd loading for the catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation, whereas low metal loading showed better conversion of methane for the catalysts prepared by ball milling using Pd acetate. This was explained in terms of an impressive dispersion of Pd species with a strong interaction with the surface of ceria, as deduced from transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization, which revealed a large quantity of highly oxidized species at the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production and Storage)
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Article
Effect of Changing Amounts of Promoters and Base Fe Metal in a Multicomponent Catalyst Supported on Coal-Based Activated Carbon for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis
Reactions 2021, 2(1), 11-29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reactions2010003 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
The effect of varying the amounts of metals Fe, Cu, K, and Mo was studied on a catalyst supported on activated carbon (AC), which is an item of novelty of this paper. The base-case catalyst contains 16% Fe, 0.9% K, 6% Mo, and [...] Read more.
The effect of varying the amounts of metals Fe, Cu, K, and Mo was studied on a catalyst supported on activated carbon (AC), which is an item of novelty of this paper. The base-case catalyst contains 16% Fe, 0.9% K, 6% Mo, and 0.8% Cu relative to the AC support. For all of the catalysts used, alcohol production is small. The production of hydrocarbons depends upon the amount of Fe and other promoters used. The amount of Fe was increased from 0% to 32% on the catalyst containing base-case amounts of the other materials. While 0% Fe shows no activity towards Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS), 32% Fe shows a marginal increase in FTS activity when compared with 16% Fe. Furthermore, the amount of K was increased from 0% to 1.8%, with the other metals in their base-case amounts. The selectivity of C1–C4 decreases with the addition of K, while the selectivity of C5+ increases. Analogously, the amount of Mo was increased from 0% to 12%. A small amount of Mo results in an increase in FTS activity but decreases with the addition of more Mo. Cu on the catalyst was increased from 0% to 1.6%, with 0.8% Cu proving optimum for FTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Carbonaceous Materials to Fuels and Chemicals)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Reactions in 2020
Reactions 2021, 2(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reactions2010002 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Reactions maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Influence of Nanoconfinement on the Hydrogen Release Processes from Sodium Alanate
Reactions 2021, 2(1), 1-9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reactions2010001 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) is a prospective H2 storage material for stationary and mobile applications, as NaAlH4 contains 7.4 wt% of H2, and it is possible to do multiple H2 release and accumulation cycles. Nanoconfinement is a [...] Read more.
Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) is a prospective H2 storage material for stationary and mobile applications, as NaAlH4 contains 7.4 wt% of H2, and it is possible to do multiple H2 release and accumulation cycles. Nanoconfinement is a potential solution to enhance the H2 release properties of NaAlH4. To optimize the supporting material and the synthesis method used for the nanoconfinement of NaAlH4, a better understanding of the influence of nanoconfinement on the H2 release processes is necessary. Thus, the H2 release from bulk, purely nanoconfined, and intermediate NaAlH4 is measured at different temperature ramp rates, and the characteristic parameters for each hydrogen release process are determined. Activation energies for each process are determined using the Kissinger method, and the effect of nanoconfinement on the activation energies is analysed. The impact of nanoconfinement on the H2 release processes from NaAlH4 and the limitations of each process in case of bulk and nanoconfined NaAlH4 are presented and discussed. Nanoconfinement of NaAlH4 decreases activation energies of the initial reversible H2 release steps to between 30 and 45 kJ mol−1 and increased the activation energy of the last irreversible H2 release step to over 210 kJ mol−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production and Storage)
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