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J. Nanotheranostics, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 8 articles

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Use of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) via Multiple Imaging Modalities and Modifications to Reduce Cytotoxicity: An Educational Review
J. Nanotheranostics 2020, 1(1), 105-135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt1010008 - 09 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The aim of the present educational review on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is to inform and guide young scientists and students about the potential use and challenges associated with SPIONs. The present review discusses the basic concepts of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [...] Read more.
The aim of the present educational review on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is to inform and guide young scientists and students about the potential use and challenges associated with SPIONs. The present review discusses the basic concepts of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), basic construct of SPIONs, cytotoxic challenges associated with SPIONs, shape and sizes of SPIONs, site-specific accumulation of SPIONs, various methodologies applied to reduce cytotoxicity including coatings with various materials, and application of SPIONs in targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics (Doxorubicin), biotherapeutics (DNA, siRNA), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in Nanoparticle Based Imaging and Therapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Activation Strategies in Image-Guided Nanotherapeutic Delivery
J. Nanotheranostics 2020, 1(1), 78-104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt1010007 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 564
Abstract
Therapeutic nanomaterials serve as an important platform for drug delivery under image guidance. Despite significant growth and broad applications, their design specifics remain a subject of continued interest primarily due to multifunctional factors involved, ranging from nanomaterial properties, imaging modalities, and therapeutic agents [...] Read more.
Therapeutic nanomaterials serve as an important platform for drug delivery under image guidance. Despite significant growth and broad applications, their design specifics remain a subject of continued interest primarily due to multifunctional factors involved, ranging from nanomaterial properties, imaging modalities, and therapeutic agents to activation strategies. This review article summarizes key findings on their design characteristics with a particular interest in strategies developed for therapeutic activation (release). First, their activation can be controlled using either an endogenous factor including low pH and glutathione or an external stimulation by light, ultrasound, or electromagnetic field. The former is passively controlled from a spatiotemporal aspect compared to the latter, which is otherwise actively controlled through drug linker photolysis, nanomaterial disassembly, or gate opening. Second, light stimulation serves a most notable strategy due to its essential role in controlled drug release, photothermal activation (hyperthermia), and photodynamic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Third, some of those activation strategies that rely on ultrasound, photothermal, photoacoustic, magnetic field, or X-ray radiation are dually functional due to their role in imaging modalities. In summary, this review article presents recent advances and new insights that pertain to nanotherapeutic delivery systems. It also addresses their technical limitations associated with tissue penetration (light), spatial resolution (ultrasound, hyperthermia), and occurrence of cellular resistance (ROS). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanotheranostic Carbon Dots as an Emerging Platform for Cancer Therapy
J. Nanotheranostics 2020, 1(1), 58-77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt1010006 - 23 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Cancer remains one of the most deadly diseases globally, but carbon-based nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize cancer diagnosis and therapy. Advances in nanotechnology and a better understanding of tumor microenvironments have contributed to novel nanotargeting routes that may bring new hope to [...] Read more.
Cancer remains one of the most deadly diseases globally, but carbon-based nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize cancer diagnosis and therapy. Advances in nanotechnology and a better understanding of tumor microenvironments have contributed to novel nanotargeting routes that may bring new hope to cancer patients. Several low-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials have shown promising preclinical results; as such, low-dimensional carbon dots (CDs) and their derivatives are considered up-and-coming candidates for cancer treatment. The unique properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are high surface area to volume ratio, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity. It makes them well suited for delivering chemotherapeutics in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Recent studies have shown that the CDs are potential applicants in biomedical sciences, both as nanocarriers and nanotransducers. This review covers the most commonly used CD nanoparticles in nanomedicines intended for the early diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The Journal of Nanotheranostics: A New Open-Access Journal at the Interface of Nanotechnology, Materials Science, and Medicine for Precision Medicine
J. Nanotheranostics 2020, 1(1), 56-57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt1010005 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Healthcare is changing [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Applications of Nanomaterials for Theranostics of Melanoma
J. Nanotheranostics 2020, 1(1), 39-55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt1010004 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer with a very high mortality rate. Early diagnosis of the disease, the utilization of more potent pharmacological agents, and more effective drug delivery systems are essential to achieve an optimal treatment plan. The applications of [...] Read more.
Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer with a very high mortality rate. Early diagnosis of the disease, the utilization of more potent pharmacological agents, and more effective drug delivery systems are essential to achieve an optimal treatment plan. The applications of nanotechnology to improve therapeutic efficacy and early diagnosis for melanoma treatment have received great interest among researchers and clinicians. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of utilizing various nanomaterials for theranostics of melanoma. The key importance of using nanomaterials for theranostics of melanoma is to improve efficacy and reduce side effects, ensuring safe implementation in clinical use. As opposed to conventional in vitro diagnostic methods, in vivo medical imaging technologies have the advantages of being a type of non-invasive, real-time monitoring. Several common nanoparticles, including ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles, and carbon-based nanoparticles, have been applied to deliver chemotherapeutic agents for the theranostics of melanoma. The application of nanomaterials for theranostics in molecular imaging (MRI, PET, US, OI, etc.) plays an important role in targeting drug delivery of melanoma, by monitoring the distribution site of the molecular imaging probe and the therapeutic drug in the body in real-time. Hence, it is worthwhile to anticipate the approval of these nanomaterials for theranostics in molecular imaging by the US Food and Drug Administration in clinical trials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Future of Anticancer Drugs: A Cytotoxicity Assessment Study of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots
J. Nanotheranostics 2020, 1(1), 19-38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt1010003 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
Quantum dots (QDs), including CdSe/ZnS, are nanoparticles emitting various wavelengths of fluorescent light depending on their size. Fluorescence allows them to be exploited for in vivo sensing/imaging of cancer cells. Nevertheless, thorough assessments of the effects of these commonly used QDs on cell [...] Read more.
Quantum dots (QDs), including CdSe/ZnS, are nanoparticles emitting various wavelengths of fluorescent light depending on their size. Fluorescence allows them to be exploited for in vivo sensing/imaging of cancer cells. Nevertheless, thorough assessments of the effects of these commonly used QDs on cell stability are essentially required prior to their full applications. To investigate the effects of Cd QDs on the growth of human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), we utilized a growth assay, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, an apoptosis assay, and RNA-seq. The growth assay results showed significant proliferation inhibition of HeLa cells by CdSe/ZnS. We revealed that smaller green CdSe/ZnS exerts more toxic effects than slightly larger yellow CdSe/ZnS. There were no significant increases of ROSs under the treatment of Cd QDs, which is consistent with the notion that low concentration of Cd QDs does not cause significant production of ROSs. In addition, we found that Cd QDs induced late apoptosis. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis revealed that the exposure to green Cd QDs significantly upregulated antiapoptotic, antiproliferative, and antitumorigenic functions. The transcriptome profile also noted the downregulation of pro-proliferation, mitochondrial respiratory chain, detoxification, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that green CdSe/ZnS can be an alternative anticancer drug. In addition, our transcriptome analysis provides new insights into alteration of physiological state induced by CdSe/ZnS QDs in HeLa cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Graphene Nanoribbons–Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite Applicable in Biomedicine and Theranostics
J. Nanotheranostics 2020, 1(1), 6-18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt1010002 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
In order to investigate the effect of graphene nanoribbons on the final properties of hydroxyapatite-based nanocomposites, a solvothermal method was used at 180 °C and 5 h for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons–hydroxyapatite nanopowders by employing hydrogen gas injection. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the effect of graphene nanoribbons on the final properties of hydroxyapatite-based nanocomposites, a solvothermal method was used at 180 °C and 5 h for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons–hydroxyapatite nanopowders by employing hydrogen gas injection. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogenphosphate were used as calcium and phosphate precursors, respectively. To synthesize the powders, a solvent containing diethylene glycol, anhydrous ethanol, dimethylformamide, and water was used. Graphene oxide nanoribbons were synthesized by chemical unzipping of carbon nanotubes under oxidative conditions. The synthesized powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering methodat 950 °C and a pressure of 50 MPa. The powders and sintered samples were then evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Vickers microindentation techniques, and biocompatibility assay. The findings of this study showed that the final powders synthesized by the solvothermal method had calcium to phosphate ratio of about 1.67. By adding a small amount of graphene nanoribbon (0.5%W), elastic modulus and hardness of hydroxyapatite increased dramatically. In biological experiments, the difference of hydroxyapatite effect in comparison with the nanocomposite was not significant. The findings of this study showed that graphene nanoribbons have a positive effect on the properties of hydroxyapatite, and these findings would be useful for the medical and theranostic application of this type of nanocomposites. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Nanotheranostic, Next Generation Prerequisite for Better Health
J. Nanotheranostics 2020, 1(1), 1-5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt1010001 - 31 Jul 2018
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