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J. Nanotheranostics, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 5 articles

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Review
Polymer-Drug Conjugates as Nanotheranostic Agents
J. Nanotheranostics 2021, 2(1), 63-81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt2010005 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
Since the last decade, the polymer-drug conjugate (PDC) approach has emerged as one of the most promising drug-delivery technologies owing to several benefits like circumventing premature drug release, offering controlled and targeted drug delivery, improving the stability, safety, and kinetics of conjugated drugs, [...] Read more.
Since the last decade, the polymer-drug conjugate (PDC) approach has emerged as one of the most promising drug-delivery technologies owing to several benefits like circumventing premature drug release, offering controlled and targeted drug delivery, improving the stability, safety, and kinetics of conjugated drugs, and so forth. In recent years, PDC technology has advanced with the objective to further enhance the treatment outcomes by integrating nanotechnology and multifunctional characteristics into these systems. One such development is the ability of PDCs to act as theranostic agents, permitting simultaneous diagnosis and treatment options. Theranostic nanocarriers offer the opportunity to track the distribution of PDCs within the body and help to localize the diseased site. This characteristic is of particular interest, especially among those therapeutic approaches where external stimuli are supposed to be applied for abrupt drug release at the target site for localized delivery to avoid systemic side effects (e.g., Visudyne®). Thus, with the help of this review article, we are presenting the most recent updates in the domain of PDCs as nanotheranostic agents. Different methodologies utilized to design PDCs along with imaging characteristics and their applicability in a wide range of diseases, have been summarized in this article. Full article
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Article
Cellular Investigations on Mechanistic Biocompatibility of Green Synthesized Calcium Oxide Nanoparticles with Danio rerio
J. Nanotheranostics 2021, 2(1), 51-62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt2010004 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
The utility of calcium oxide nanoparticles in the biomedical and physical fields has instigated their biocompatible synthesis and production. Moreover, it is important to investigate their biocompatibility at the molecular level for biomedical and ecotoxicological concern. This study explores the green synthesis of [...] Read more.
The utility of calcium oxide nanoparticles in the biomedical and physical fields has instigated their biocompatible synthesis and production. Moreover, it is important to investigate their biocompatibility at the molecular level for biomedical and ecotoxicological concern. This study explores the green synthesis of calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaONP) using Crescentia cujete leaf extract. The synthesized CaONP were found to have a size of 62 ± 06 nm and a hydrodynamic diameter of 246 ± 12 nm, as determined by FE-SEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS). CaONP was stable in fish medium with a zeta potential of −23 ± 11 mV. The biocompatibility of the CaONP was investigated with adult zebrafish bearing an LC50 of 86.32 µg/mL. Cellular and molecular investigation revealed the mechanism of biocompatibility as a consequence of elicited reactive oxygen species leading to apoptosis, due to accumulation and internalization of CaONP in exposed zebrafish. The study provided detailed information about the mechanistic biocompatibility and a defined horizon of green synthesis of CaONP for biomedical and ecological purposes. Full article
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Article
Tailoring the Radionuclide Encapsulation and Surface Chemistry of La(223Ra)VO4 Nanoparticles for Targeted Alpha Therapy
J. Nanotheranostics 2021, 2(1), 33-50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt2010003 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
The development of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) as a viable cancer treatment requires innovative solutions to challenges associated with radionuclide retention to enhance local tumor cytotoxicity and to minimize off-target effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) with high encapsulation and high retention of radionuclides have shown [...] Read more.
The development of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) as a viable cancer treatment requires innovative solutions to challenges associated with radionuclide retention to enhance local tumor cytotoxicity and to minimize off-target effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) with high encapsulation and high retention of radionuclides have shown potential in overcoming these issues. This article shows the influence of pH on the structure of lanthanum vanadate (LaVO4) NPs and its impact on the radiochemical yield of 223Ra and subsequent retention of its decay daughters, 211Pb and 211Bi. An acidic pH (4.9) results in a high fraction of La(223Ra)VO4 NPs with tetragonal structure (44.6–66.1%) and a 223Ra radiochemical yield <40%. Adjusting the pH to 11 yields >80% of La(223Ra)VO4 NPs with monoclinic structure and increases the 223Ra radiochemical yield >85%. The leakage of decay daughters from La(223Ra)VO4 NPs (pH 11) was <5% and <0.5% when exposed to deionized water and phosphate-buffered saline, respectively. Altering the surface chemistry of La(223Ra)VO4 NPs with carboxylate and phosphate compounds resulted in a threefold decrease in hydrodynamic diameter and a 223Ra radiochemical yield between 74.7% and 99.6%. These results show the importance of tailoring the synthesis parameters and surface chemistry of LaVO4 NPs to obtain high encapsulation and retention of radionuclides. Full article
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Article
An Assessment of InP/ZnS as Potential Anti-Cancer Therapy: Quantum Dot Treatment Increases Apoptosis in HeLa Cells
J. Nanotheranostics 2021, 2(1), 16-32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt2010002 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are an emerging option in QD technologies for uses of fluorescent imaging as well as targeted drug and anticancer therapies based on their customizable properties. In this study we explored effects of InP/ZnS when treated with HeLa cervical cancer [...] Read more.
InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are an emerging option in QD technologies for uses of fluorescent imaging as well as targeted drug and anticancer therapies based on their customizable properties. In this study we explored effects of InP/ZnS when treated with HeLa cervical cancer cells. We employed XTT viability assays, reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis, and apoptosis analysis to better understand cytotoxicity extents at different concentrations of InP/ZnS. In addition, we compared the transcriptome profile from the QD-treated HeLa cells with that of untreated HeLa cells to identify changes to the transcriptome in response to the QD. RT-qPCR assay was performed to confirm the findings of transcriptome analysis, and the QD mode of action was illustrated. Our study determined both IC50 concentration of 69 µg/mL and MIC concentration of 167 µg/mL of InP/ZnS. It was observed via XTT assay that cell viability was decreased significantly at the MIC. Production of superoxide, measured by ROS assay with flow cytometry, was decreased, whereas levels of nitrogen radicals increased. Using analysis of apoptosis, we found that induced cell death in the QD-treated samples was shown to be significantly increased when compared to untreated cells. We conclude InP/ZnS QD to decrease cell viability by inducing stress via ROS levels, apoptosis induction, and alteration of transcriptome. Full article
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Review
Nanomaterial-Mediated Theranostics for Vascular Diseases
J. Nanotheranostics 2021, 2(1), 1-15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jnt2010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 981
Abstract
Nanotechnology could offer a new complementary strategy for the treatment of vascular diseases including coronary, carotid, or peripheral arterial disease due to narrowing or blockage of the artery caused by atherosclerosis. These arterial diseases manifest correspondingly as angina and myocardial infarction, stroke, and [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology could offer a new complementary strategy for the treatment of vascular diseases including coronary, carotid, or peripheral arterial disease due to narrowing or blockage of the artery caused by atherosclerosis. These arterial diseases manifest correspondingly as angina and myocardial infarction, stroke, and intermittent claudication of leg muscles during exercise. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves biological events at the cellular and molecular level, thus targeting these using nanomaterials precisely and effectively could result in a better outcome. Nanotechnology can mitigate the pathological events by enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of the therapeutic agent by delivering it at the point of a lesion in a controlled and efficacious manner. Further, combining therapeutics with imaging will enhance the theranostic ability in atherosclerosis. Additionally, nanoparticles can provide a range of delivery systems for genes, proteins, cells, and drugs, which individually or in combination can address various problems within the arteries. Imaging studies combined with nanoparticles helps in evaluating the disease progression as well as the response to the treatment because imaging and diagnostic agents can be delivered precisely to the targeted destinations via nanocarriers. This review focuses on the use of nanotechnology in theranostics of coronary artery and peripheral arterial disease. Full article
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