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Dairy, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2020) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is one of the most important nutritional disorders in dairy cows. Definitions of SARA largely rely on the pH of rumen fluid. Continuous measurements of ruminal pH are constraining, and therefore there is a high demand for on-farm indicators. In this study, we examined the relationship between ruminal pH parameters and the milk fat-to-protein ratio on a meta-analytical level. In addition, we included further indicators available under practical farm conditions. The results showed significant associations but also limitations. View this paper
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Dry Period Length of Swedish Dairy Cows on the Proteome of Colostrum
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 313-325; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030021 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 494
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of applying a 4-week instead of an 8-week dry period to dairy cows on the proteome of colostrum (first sample) and of transition milk (the fifth postpartum milk sample). Individual milk serum samples [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of applying a 4-week instead of an 8-week dry period to dairy cows on the proteome of colostrum (first sample) and of transition milk (the fifth postpartum milk sample). Individual milk serum samples of colostrum and transition milk were analysed from 12 Swedish Holstein (SH) and 12 Swedish Red (SR) cows. Samples were prepared by filter-aided sample preparation and dimethyl labelling and analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Shortening the dry period resulted in upregulation of 18 proteins in colostrum and transition milk of SR, whereas no statistical differences were found for SH colostrum and transition milk. These upregulated proteins may reflect a specific immune response in the SR samples that was reflected in colostrum as well as in transition milk. Upregulated proteins in colostrum seemed to reflect increased mammary epithelial cell proliferation in the periparturient period when a 4-week dry period was applied. The proteome data indicate that a dry period of 4 weeks to SR cows may not be sufficient for complete regeneration of the mammary epithelium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Omics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Survival of Selected Pathogenic Bacteria during PDO Pecorino Romano Cheese Ripening
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 297-312; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030020 - 07 Dec 2020
Viewed by 552
Abstract
This study was conducted to assess, for the first time, the survival of the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus during the ripening of protected designation of origin (PDO) Pecorino Romano cheese. A total of twenty-four [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to assess, for the first time, the survival of the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus during the ripening of protected designation of origin (PDO) Pecorino Romano cheese. A total of twenty-four cheese-making trials (twelve from raw milk and twelve from thermized milk) were performed under the protocol specified by PDO requirements. Sheep cheese milk was first inoculated before processing with approximately 106 colony-forming unit (CFU) mL−1 of each considered pathogen and the experiment was repeated six times for each selected pathogen. Cheese composition and pathogens count were then evaluated in inoculated raw milk, thermized milk, and cheese after 1, 90, and 150 days of ripening. pH, moisture, water activity, and salt content of cheese were within the range of the commercial PDO Pecorino Romano cheese. All the cheeses made from raw and thermized milk were microbiologically safe after 90 days and 1 day from their production, respectively. In conclusion, when Pecorino Romano cheese is produced under PDO specifications, from raw or thermized milk, a combination of factors including the speed and extent of curd acidification in the first phase of the production, together with an intense salting and a long ripening time, preclude the possibility of growth and survival of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O157:H7. Only S. aureus can be still detectable at such low levels that it does not pose a risk to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes to the Oligosaccharide Profile of Bovine Milk at the Onset of Lactation
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 284-296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030019 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Numerous bioactive components exist in human milk including free oligosaccharides, which represent some of the most important, and provide numerous health benefits to the neonate. Considering the demonstrated value of these compounds, much interest lies in characterising structurally similar oligosaccharides in the dairy [...] Read more.
Numerous bioactive components exist in human milk including free oligosaccharides, which represent some of the most important, and provide numerous health benefits to the neonate. Considering the demonstrated value of these compounds, much interest lies in characterising structurally similar oligosaccharides in the dairy industry. In this study, the impacts of days post-parturition and parity of the cows on the oligosaccharide and lactose profiles of their milk were evaluated. Colostrum and milk samples were obtained from 18 cows 1–5 days after parturition. Three distinct phases were identified using multivariate analysis: colostrum (day 0), transitional milk (days 1–2) and mature milk (days 3–5). LS-tetrasaccharide c, lacto-N-neotetraose, disialyllacto-N-tetraose, 3’-sial-N-acetyllactosamine, 3’-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neohexaose and disialyllactose were found to be highly affiliated with colostrum. Notably, levels of lactose were at their lowest concentration in the colostrum and substantially increased 1-day post-parturition. The cow’s parity was also shown to have a significant effect on the oligosaccharide profile, with first lactation cows containing more disialyllacto-N-tetraose, 6’-sialyllactose and LS-tetrasaccharide compared to cows in their second or third parity. Overall, this study identifies key changes in oligosaccharide and lactose content that clearly distinguish colostrum from transitional and mature milk and may facilitate the collection of specific streams with divergent biological functions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Survivability of Salmonella Pathogens and Physicochemical Characteristics of Powder Goat Milk Stored under Different Storage Treatment Regimens
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 269-283; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030018 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Survivability of Salmonella pathogens in commercial powdered goat milk (PGM) under different storage treatments was investigated using three batches of PGM products stored at two temperatures (4 °C and 25 °C) and ten storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90, [...] Read more.
Survivability of Salmonella pathogens in commercial powdered goat milk (PGM) under different storage treatments was investigated using three batches of PGM products stored at two temperatures (4 °C and 25 °C) and ten storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days). A cocktail of three Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella agona, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella tennessee) was inoculated to the PGM samples and then survival of Salmonella counts was enumerated in the inoculated and non-inoculated control groups. Results showed that the initial Salmonella counts were 7.103 Log CFU (colony forming unit)/g at both temperatures. At the first 3 days, the viable Salmonella counts were reduced about 0.94 and 1.40 Log CFU/g at 4 °C and 25 °C, respectively, where the same levels were sustained for 14 days. Further reductions continued and at the end of 180 days storage, Salmonella survivability was 1.15 Log CFU/g higher at 4 °C than at 25 °C under the same water activity condition. As the storage period advanced, viable pathogen counts were gradually decreased. The pH of samples stored at 4 °C for 0 and 4 month were higher than those stored at 25 °C except for 2 months, while no differences were found in water activity (aw) between treatments of the PGM products. With regard to physicochemical characteristics, the samples stored at 25 °C showed higher POV (peroxide value) values than those stored at 4 °C for 2 and 4 month periods, indicating that the rate of lipid oxidation in the PGM was elevated by a higher storage temperature and a longer storage period. The basic nutrient compositions of the experimental PGM were similar to those reported in recent studies. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the highest, caprylic acid (C8:0) was the second highest, and behenic acid (C22:0) was the lowest concentration among all fatty acids identified in the PGM samples. Most of the fatty acid concentrations tended to decrease with advanced storage periods. This research indicates that the survivability of Salmonella pathogens in the PGM products stored at 4 °C for 180 days was higher than those stored at 25 °C under the same aw condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
The Milk Fat-to-Protein Ratio as Indicator for Ruminal pH Parameters in Dairy Cows: A Meta-Analysis
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 259-268; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030017 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) represents one of the most important nutritional disorders in high-producing dairy farms. The determination of ruminal pH is a key factor for the diagnosis of SARA. However, measuring ruminal pH in the field is not practicable. Therefore, indicators that [...] Read more.
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) represents one of the most important nutritional disorders in high-producing dairy farms. The determination of ruminal pH is a key factor for the diagnosis of SARA. However, measuring ruminal pH in the field is not practicable. Therefore, indicators that reflect the ruminal pH are in demand. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the milk fat-to-protein ratio (FPR) and ruminal pH parameters (daily mean pH, daily time with pH < 5.8, and pH range) on a meta-analytical level including 47 studies with 189 treatment means. Besides the FPR, it was examined how a stepwise extension of further indicators (milk yield, rumination time, and dietary starch and structure effectiveness) can improve the prediction of ruminal pH parameters. Significant associations between milk FPR and ruminal pH parameters were found. The inclusion of further on-farm indicators improved the prediction of daily mean ruminal pH up to Rm2 = 0.46 and time with pH < 5.8 up to Rm2=0.58. Still, a considerable part of variability was explained by the random factor study. Additional information (dietary PUFA content) may improve the models in further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Physiology)
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Open AccessReview
Whey Proteins and Its Derivatives: Bioactivity, Functionality, and Current Applications
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 233-258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030016 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 738
Abstract
With the increased consumer demand for nutritional foods, it is important to develop value-added products, which will not only catch the attention of a wider consumer group but also provide greater benefits in terms of enhanced nutrition and functionality. Milk whey proteins are [...] Read more.
With the increased consumer demand for nutritional foods, it is important to develop value-added products, which will not only catch the attention of a wider consumer group but also provide greater benefits in terms of enhanced nutrition and functionality. Milk whey proteins are one of the most valued constituents due to their nutritional and techno-functional attributes. Whey proteins are rich in bioactive peptides, possessing bioactive properties such as being antioxidant and antihypertensive as well as having antimicrobial activities, which, when ingested, confers several health benefits. These peptides have the potential to be used as an active food ingredient in the production of functional foods. In addition to their bioactivities, whey proteins are known to possess enhanced functional attributes that allow them to be utilized in broad applications, such as an encapsulating agent or carrier materials to entrap bioactive compounds, emulsification, and in edible and active packaging. Hence, over the recent years, several whey protein-based ingredients have been developed and utilized in making formulations for a wide range of foods to harness their beneficial properties. This review highlights the bioactive properties, functional characteristics, associated processing limitations, and applications of different whey protein fractions and derivatives in the field of food formulations, encapsulation, and packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Lactic Acid Bacteria: Food Safety and Human Health Applications
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 202-232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030015 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Research on lactic acid bacteria has confirmed how specific strains possess probiotic properties and impart unique sensory characteristics to food products. The use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in many food products, thus confers various health benefits to humans when they are [...] Read more.
Research on lactic acid bacteria has confirmed how specific strains possess probiotic properties and impart unique sensory characteristics to food products. The use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in many food products, thus confers various health benefits to humans when they are frequently consumed in adequate amounts. The advent of functional food or the concept of nutraceuticals objectively places more emphasis on seeking alternatives to limit the use of medications thus promoting the regular consumption of fermented foods. Probiotic use has thus been recommended to fulfill the role of nutraceuticals, as no side effects on human health have been reported. Probiotics and lactic acid bacteria can boost and strengthen the human immune system, thereby increasing its resistance against numerous disease conditions. Consumer safety and confidence in dairy and fermented food products and the desire of the food industry to meet the sensory and health needs of consumers, has thus increased the demand for probiotic starter cultures with exceptional performance coupled with health benefiting properties. The potential of probiotic cultures and lactic acid bacteria in many industrial applications including fermented food products generally affects product characteristics and also serves as health-promoting foods for humans. The alleviation of lactose intolerance in many populations globally has been one of the widely accepted health claims attributed to probiotics and lactic acid bacteria, although many diseases have been treated with probiotic lactic acid bacteria and have been proven with scientific and clinical studies. The aim of our review was to present information related to lactic acid bacteria, the new classification and perspectives on industrial applications with a special emphasis on food safety and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Survivability of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Pathogens and Food Safety Concerns on Commercial Powder Milk Products
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 189-201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030014 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Milk and dairy products are susceptible to the incidence of foodborne illnesses by numerous pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) and Staphylococcus aureus. Annually Salmonella infections cause approximately [...] Read more.
Milk and dairy products are susceptible to the incidence of foodborne illnesses by numerous pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) and Staphylococcus aureus. Annually Salmonella infections cause approximately 93.8 million cases of gastroenteritis and 155,000 deaths worldwide. Including meat and poultry, dairy products are the most commonly contaminated foods by Salmonella. Studies show that Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes are among the top 5 pathogens causing hospitalization and life-threatening foodborne illnesses. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that annually around 1.2 million foodborne illnesses with more than 23,000 hospitalizations, 450 deaths and 130 outbreaks were attributed to Salmonella infection in the U.S. The Salmonella enteric in skim milk powder survived at three months storage, with water activity as low as 0.33. With respect to Escherichia coli O157:H7, it is capable of causing disease at a low dosage, ranging from 5–50 cells. Viable cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reportedly survive in infant formula powder for one year at 5 °C. The survivability of Escherichia coli in powder milk was significantly reduced with the synergistic effects of storage time and temperature. The U.S. Dairy Export Council recommends that milk powder should be stored in a cool and dry place, at a temperature not to exceed 27 °C, and a relative humidity not to exceed 65%. Reports have recommended that milk powder products need to be stored in light, oxygen, and moisture-proof containers. In this article, the survival of the major foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in powdered milk products from common dairy species such as cow and goats are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessComment
Comment on “Maize and Grass Silage Feeding to Dairy Cows Combined with Different Concentrate Feed Proportions with a Special Focus on Mycotoxins, Shiga Toxin (stx)-Forming Escherichia coli and Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) Genes: Implications for Animal Health and Food Safety”. Dairy 2020, 1, 91–125
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 187-188; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030013 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Dänicke and colleagues carried out an interesting experiment with late-lactating cows fed a diet with maize and grass silage (MS, GS) combined with different portions of concentrate in the ration (20% and 60% on a dry matter basis) [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Fighting the Deadly Helminthiasis without Drug Resistance
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 177-186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dairy1030012 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Helminthiasis is a very costly management problem in the sheep and goat industry, because the gastrointestinal parasites develop resistance against all chemical products that are discovered and produced by the pharmaceutical industry. The use of natural herbal contents of tannin as especially in [...] Read more.
Helminthiasis is a very costly management problem in the sheep and goat industry, because the gastrointestinal parasites develop resistance against all chemical products that are discovered and produced by the pharmaceutical industry. The use of natural herbal contents of tannin as especially in Sericea Lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneate) is very promising. Utilizing genetic differences in resistance among the different goat and sheep breeds is a promising alternative, with limited success to date. Totally eliminating the offending parasites from re-infesting by plowing under affected pastures for some seasons, or scheduling rotational pastures, or feeding fresh (grazed) or dried forms of the perennial warm-season legume sericea lespedeza to the infected sheep and goats, or using elevated housing with slatted floors are the most promising alternatives to the ancient tradition of herding and managing ruminants by transhumance. An elevated slatted floor housing is desirable, and deserves wider attention because of its potential in controlling helminthiasis. Slatted floors are already used in the sheep and goat industries in Sweden, Norway, Malaysia and Guatemala. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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