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Vehicles, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The effectiveness of driving simulators depends largely on their ability to generate realistic motion cues. Though conventional filter-based motion-cueing strategies have provided reasonable results, these methods suffer from poor workspace management. In this paper, a new MPC-based algorithm has been designed that incorporates the nonlinear kinematics of the Stewart platform. Moreover, the human vestibular system model is included within the formulation to increase the fidelity of the produced motion cues. To manage the workspace efficiently, constraints are imposed on the actuator displacements, and state-dependent adaptive weights are used to tune the algorithm. The results indicate a better reference tracking and workspace utilization performance for the proposed algorithm when compared to conventional algorithms. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Motorcycle Structural Fatigue Monitoring Using Smart Wheels
Vehicles 2020, 2(4), 648-674; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles2040037 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 679
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the measurement and to the processing of load spectra of forces and moments acting at the wheel hub of a motorcycle. Smart wheels (SWs) have been specifically developed for the scope. Throughout the paper, the extreme case of [...] Read more.
The paper is devoted to the measurement and to the processing of load spectra of forces and moments acting at the wheel hub of a motorcycle. Smart wheels (SWs) have been specifically developed for the scope. Throughout the paper, the extreme case of a race motorcycle is considered. Accurate load spectra were measured in two race circuits. Standardized load spectra are derived by processing measured data. A way to easily generalize the measured load spectra is proposed for the first time for motorcycles. Several loading conditions, related to the motorcycle straight line motion, cornering, curb hit and gear shift, are identified and extracted from the experimental measures. For each loading condition, by means of simple semi-analytical models (SAMs), a relationship is found between the vertical force on the wheel, the tilt angle of the motorcycle and the remaining forces and moments acting at the wheel hub. Such relationships are nothing else than the standardized load spectra. Additionally, a simple and efficient method based on smart wheels for real-time structural monitoring is proposed. Standardized load spectra prove to provide consistent results even when compared to real-time structural monitoring data. By means of the presented smart wheels, advanced lightweight motorcycle construction is enabled by derivation of standardized load spectra or real time estimation of the damage of structural components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
MPC-Based Motion-Cueing Algorithm for a 6-DOF Driving Simulator with Actuator Constraints
Vehicles 2020, 2(4), 625-647; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles2040036 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 2064
Abstract
Driving simulators are widely used for understanding human–machine interaction, driver behavior and in driver training. The effectiveness of simulators in this process depends largely on their ability to generate realistic motion cues. Though the conventional filter-based motion-cueing strategies have provided reasonable results, these [...] Read more.
Driving simulators are widely used for understanding human–machine interaction, driver behavior and in driver training. The effectiveness of simulators in this process depends largely on their ability to generate realistic motion cues. Though the conventional filter-based motion-cueing strategies have provided reasonable results, these methods suffer from poor workspace management. To address this issue, linear MPC-based strategies have been applied in the past. However, since the kinematics of the motion platform itself is nonlinear and the required motion varies with the driving conditions, this approach tends to produce sub-optimal results. This paper presents a nonlinear MPC-based algorithm which incorporates the nonlinear kinematics of the Stewart platform within the MPC algorithm in order to increase the cueing fidelity and use maximum workspace. Furthermore, adaptive weights-based tuning is used to smooth the movement of the platform towards its physical limits. Full-track simulations were carried out and performance indicators were defined to objectively compare the response of the proposed algorithm with classical washout filter and linear MPC-based algorithms. The results indicate a better reference tracking with lower root mean square error and higher shape correlation for the proposed algorithm. Lastly, the effect of the adaptive weights-based tuning was also observed in the form of smoother actuator movements and better workspace use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Control of Automated Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Multi-Level Dynamic System Topology Design Synthesis
Vehicles 2020, 2(4), 603-624; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles2040035 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Designing new mechatronic systems for vehicle applications is a complex and time-consuming process. The increasing computational power allows us to generate automatically novel and new mechatronic discrete-topology concepts in an efficient manner. Using state-of-the-art computational design synthesis techniques assures that the complete search [...] Read more.
Designing new mechatronic systems for vehicle applications is a complex and time-consuming process. The increasing computational power allows us to generate automatically novel and new mechatronic discrete-topology concepts in an efficient manner. Using state-of-the-art computational design synthesis techniques assures that the complete search space, given a finite set of system elements, is processed to find all feasible topologies. The topology generation is done by converting the design synthesis problem into a constraint satisfaction problem. Accordingly, this mathematical problem is solved by assigning the presence of components and connections to variables, whereby a set of mathematical constraints need to be satisfied. These constraints capture, in essence, formalized engineering knowledge. After solving this problem, the results are post-processed to discard redundant topologies due to isomorphism. In this paper, a newly developed software application with automated constraint generation is presented that facilitates the topology generation with multiple system levels in a loop. The scalability of the problem and the different levels of expressiveness are analyzed, and the influence of the abstraction level choice on the search space is discussed. Finally, a relevant mechatronic design study from the automotive engineering field is discussed concerning the topology synthesis of alternative electro-hydraulic actuation systems being part of new continuously variable transmission topologies, thus showing its applicability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Importance of Vehicle Body Elements and Rear Axle Elements for Describing Road Booming Noise
Vehicles 2020, 2(4), 589-602; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles2040034 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 870
Abstract
For investigating influences of vehicle components on the acoustic comfort at low frequencies, e.g., the booming noise behavior of a vehicle, building a whole car simulation model is useful. To reduce the model’s complexity and to save resources in the validation process, we [...] Read more.
For investigating influences of vehicle components on the acoustic comfort at low frequencies, e.g., the booming noise behavior of a vehicle, building a whole car simulation model is useful. To reduce the model’s complexity and to save resources in the validation process, we first identify relevant components before building the model. Based on previous studies, we focus on the vehicle’s body and the rear axle. In this paper, we analyze which axle and body elements are crucial for describing road booming noise. For this purpose, we use impact measurements to examine noise transfer functions of the body and a vibro-acoustical modal analysis to identify coupled modes between the body’s structure and the interior cavity. For investigating relevant force paths from the rear axle to the body, we used a chassis test bench. We identify the main transmission paths of road booming noise and highlight which axle and body components have an influence on them. Mainly the rear axle in its upright direction in combination with a rigid body movement of the rear tailgate coupled with the first longitudinal mode of the airborne cavity causes road booming noise. Furthermore, the rear axle steering, the active roll stabilization and the trim elements of the vehicle’s body are essential to describe road booming noise. The results can be used to set priorities in the validation of individual axle and body components for future simulation models. We found that the ventilation openings, the front seats, the headliner, and the cockpit of a vehicle have little influence on its noise transfer functions from the rear axle connection points to the driver’s ear between 20 and 60 Hz. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Research on the Comprehensive Performance of Vehicle Magnetorheological Regenerative Suspension
Vehicles 2020, 2(4), 576-588; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles2040033 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Magnetorheological (MR) regenerative suspension system can not only achieve excellent comprehensive suspension performance but also effectively recover and utilize vibration potential energy, which has been a research hotspot in the field of vehicle engineering. In this paper, for the 1/4 vehicle’s MR regenerative [...] Read more.
Magnetorheological (MR) regenerative suspension system can not only achieve excellent comprehensive suspension performance but also effectively recover and utilize vibration potential energy, which has been a research hotspot in the field of vehicle engineering. In this paper, for the 1/4 vehicle’s MR regenerative suspension system parallel with a tubular permanent magnet linear motor (TPMLM), the dynamic model of the MR semi-active suspension system and the TPMLM finite element model are established separately to form a joint simulation platform. The simulation analysis of the comprehensive suspension performance and regeneration performance under different road excitations is performed. The results show that installing TPMLM does not change the natural resonance frequency of the suspension system, which ensures good driving comfort and handling stability. At the same time, it has considerable regeneration power. This research can provide a reference for the stability analysis and popularization of the vehicle’s MR regenerative suspension system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Design Processes)
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Future Powertrain Technologies
Vehicles 2020, 2(4), 574-575; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles2040032 - 30 Sep 2020
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Beside others, climate change and digitalization are trends of huge public interest, which highly influence the development process of future powertrain technologies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Powertrain Technologies)
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