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Vehicles, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The image shows a typical driving posture with hands on the steering wheel at the zero position. The muscles in the arm are lumped together with linear compliance, i.e., stiffness and damping parameters. The top plot shows the frequency response from driving torque to steering speed. With different initial postures, i.e., different initial steering angle conditions, the maximum arm stiffness reduces, as does the eigenfrequency with an increased steering angle from the center position. The bottom plot shows a quasi-static normalized elbow joint torque response over steering angle, given a linear steering stiffness. This helps us to understand the true non-linear response of the joint due to driving posture only. View this paper.
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Article
Comparison of Typical Controllers for Direct Yaw Moment Control Applied on an Electric Race Car
Vehicles 2021, 3(1), 127-144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles3010008 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Direct Yaw Moment Control (DYC) is an effective way to alter the behaviour of electric cars with independent drives. Controlling the torque applied to each wheel can improve the handling performance of a vehicle making it safer and faster on a race track. [...] Read more.
Direct Yaw Moment Control (DYC) is an effective way to alter the behaviour of electric cars with independent drives. Controlling the torque applied to each wheel can improve the handling performance of a vehicle making it safer and faster on a race track. The state-of-the-art literature covers the comparison of various controllers (PID, LPV, LQR, SMC, etc.) using ISO manoeuvres. However, a more advanced comparison of the important characteristics of the controllers’ performance is lacking, such as the robustness of the controllers under changes in the vehicle model, steering behaviour, use of the friction circle, and, ultimately, lap time on a track. In this study, we have compared the controllers according to some of the aforementioned parameters on a modelled race car. Interestingly, best lap times are not provided by perfect neutral or close-to-neutral behaviour of the vehicle, but rather by allowing certain deviations from the target yaw rate. In addition, a modified Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller showed that its performance is comparable to other more complex control techniques such as Model Predictive Control (MPC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Control of Automated Vehicles)
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Article
Musculoskeletal Driver Model for the Steering Feedback Controller
Vehicles 2021, 3(1), 111-126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles3010007 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
This paper aims to find a mathematical justification for the non-linear steady state steering haptic response as a function of driver arm posture. Experiments show that different arm postures, that is, same hands location on the steering wheel but at different initial steering [...] Read more.
This paper aims to find a mathematical justification for the non-linear steady state steering haptic response as a function of driver arm posture. Experiments show that different arm postures, that is, same hands location on the steering wheel but at different initial steering angles, result in a change in maximum driver arm stiffness. This implies the need for different steering torque response as a function of steering angle, which is under investigation. A quasi-static musculoskeletal driver model considering elbow and shoulder joints is developed for posture analysis. The torque acting in the shoulder joint is higher than in the elbow. The relationship between the joint torque and joint angle is linear in the shoulder, whereas the non-linearity occurs in the elbow joint. The simulation results qualitatively indicate a similar pattern as compared to the experimental muscle activity results. Due to increasing muscle non-linearity at high steering angles, the arm stiffness decreases and then the hypothesis suggests that the effective steering stiffness is intentionally reduced for a consistent on-center haptic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Control of Automated Vehicles)
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Article
Model for the Pattern-Dependent Wet Grip Prediction of Tires
Vehicles 2021, 3(1), 84-110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles3010006 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 774
Abstract
The most important task of the tire is to ensure driving safety by optimally transmitting the required longitudinal and lateral driving forces. Although great progress has been made in the past in the development of new materials and patterns, many questions remain unanswered [...] Read more.
The most important task of the tire is to ensure driving safety by optimally transmitting the required longitudinal and lateral driving forces. Although great progress has been made in the past in the development of new materials and patterns, many questions remain unanswered in the field of elastomer friction on rough surfaces. This is particularly true when an additional intermediate medium is introduced into the contact, as for braking on wet roads in the form of water. To better understand this process, a model of a single-tread block on a rough road surface is developed. The influence of the fluid is represented by a physical meaningful friction law. The model is validated with results of tire wet-braking tests on an internal drum test rig. The model can map the interaction between tire tread, rough road surface and fluid film and the simulation results show a good agreement with the measurement results. Based on the investigation of individual tread blocks, a new approach to the description of the wet-braking behavior of passenger car tires was thus demonstrated, which can be extended to more complex tread geometries in the future. Full article
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Article
An Artificial Intelligence-Based Approach for the Controlled Access Ramp Metering Problem
Vehicles 2021, 3(1), 63-83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles3010005 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 821
Abstract
The ever-increasing demand for transportation of people and goods as well as the massive accumulation of population in urban centers have increased the need for appropriate infrastructure and system development in order to efficiently manage the constantly increasing and diverse traffic flows. Moreover, [...] Read more.
The ever-increasing demand for transportation of people and goods as well as the massive accumulation of population in urban centers have increased the need for appropriate infrastructure and system development in order to efficiently manage the constantly increasing and diverse traffic flows. Moreover, given the rapid growth and the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), the development of intelligent traffic management systems that go beyond traditional approaches is now more feasible than ever. Nowadays, highways often have sensors installed across their range that collect data such as speed, density, direction and so on. In addition, the rapid evolution of vehicles with installed computer systems and sensors on board, provides a very large amount of data, ranging from very simple features such as speed, acceleration, etc. to very complex data like the driver’s situation and driving behavior. However, these data alone and without any further processing, cannot solve the congestion problem. Therefore, the development of complex computational methods and algorithms underpins the chance to process these data in a fast and reliable way. The purpose of this paper is to present a traffic control ramp metering (RM) method based on machine learning and to study its impact on a selected highway segment. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Vehicles in 2020
Vehicles 2021, 3(1), 61-62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles3010004 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Vehicles maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Digital Development Process for the Drive System of a Balanced Two-Wheel Scooter
Vehicles 2021, 3(1), 33-60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles3010003 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
Graph-based design languages have received increasing attention in the research community, because they offer a promising approach to address several major issues in engineering, e.g., the frequent manual data transfer between computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems. Currently, these issues prevent [...] Read more.
Graph-based design languages have received increasing attention in the research community, because they offer a promising approach to address several major issues in engineering, e.g., the frequent manual data transfer between computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems. Currently, these issues prevent the realization of machine executable digital design processes of complex systems such as vehicles. Promising scenarios for urban transportation include an interconnection of mass transportation systems such as buses and subways with individual vehicles for the so-called “last mile” transport. For several reasons, these vehicles should be as small and light as possible. A considerable reduction in weight and size can be achieved, if such vehicles are tailored to the individual size, weight and proportion of the individual user. However, tailoring vehicles for the individual characteristics of each user go beyond a simple building set and require a continuous digital design process. Consequently, the topic of this paper is a digital design process of a self-balanced scooter, which can be used as an individual last-mile means of transport. This process is based on graph-based design languages, because in these languages, a digital system model is generated, which contains all relevant information about a design and can be fed into any simulation tool which is needed to evaluate the impact of a possible design variation on the resulting product performance. As this process can be automated by digital compilers, it is possible to perform systematic design variations for an almost infinite amount of parameters and topological variants. Consequently, these kinds of graph-based languages are a powerful means to generate viable design alternatives and thus permit fast evaluations. The paper demonstrates the design process, focusing on the drive system of the respective balanced two-wheel scooter and highlights the advantages (data integration and possibility for machine execution). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Design Processes)
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Article
Design of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain for Performance Optimization Considering Various Powertrain Components and Configurations
Vehicles 2021, 3(1), 20-32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles3010002 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Emissions from the transportation sector due to the consumption of fossil fuels by conventional vehicles have been a major cause of climate change. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are a cleaner solution to reduce the emissions caused by transportation, and well-designed HEVs can also [...] Read more.
Emissions from the transportation sector due to the consumption of fossil fuels by conventional vehicles have been a major cause of climate change. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are a cleaner solution to reduce the emissions caused by transportation, and well-designed HEVs can also outperform conventional vehicles. This study examines various powertrain configurations and components to design a hybrid powertrain that can satisfy the performance criteria given by the EcoCAR Mobility Challenge competition. These criteria include acceleration, braking, driving range, fuel economy, and emissions. A total of five different designs were investigated using MATLAB/Simulink simulations to obtain the necessary performance metrics. Only one powertrain design was found to satisfy all the performance targets. This design is a P4 hybrid powertrain consisting of a 2.5 L engine from General Motors, a 150 kW electric motor with an electronic drive unit (EDU) from American Axle Manufacturing, and a 133 kW battery pack from Hybrid Design Services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Design Processes)
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Article
A Model-Based Design Approach for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Tractor Energy Management Strategy Using Hardware in the Loop Technique
Vehicles 2021, 3(1), 1-19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vehicles3010001 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Recent developments in emissions regulations are pushing Non-Road Mobile Machineries manufacturers towards the adoption of more efficient solutions to reduce the amount of pollutants per unit of work performed. Electrification can be a reasonable alternative to traditional powertrain to achieve this goal. The [...] Read more.
Recent developments in emissions regulations are pushing Non-Road Mobile Machineries manufacturers towards the adoption of more efficient solutions to reduce the amount of pollutants per unit of work performed. Electrification can be a reasonable alternative to traditional powertrain to achieve this goal. The higher complexity of working machines architectures requires, now more than ever, better design and testing methodologies to better integrate electric systems into mechanical and hydraulic layouts. In this work, the attention focused on the use of a Hardware in the Loop (HIL) approach to test performance of an energy management strategy (called load observer) developed specifically for an orchard tractor starting from field characterization. The HIL bench was designed to replicate a scaled architecture of a parallel hybrid electric tractor at mechanical and electrical level. The vehicle behavior was simulated with a personal computer connected on the CAN BUS network designed for the HIL system. Several tasks were simulated starting from data gathered during field measurements of a daily use of the machine. Results showed good performance in terms of load split between the two power sources and stability of the speed control although the variability of the applied load. Full article
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