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Prosthesis, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 13 articles

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Open AccessArticle
3D Multi-Material Printing of an Anthropomorphic, Personalized Replacement Hand for Use in Neuroprosthetics Using 3D Scanning and Computer-Aided Design: First Proof-of-Technical-Concept Study
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 362-370; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040034 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Background: This paper presents a novel approach for a hand prosthesis consisting of a flexible, anthropomorphic, 3D-printed replacement hand combined with a commercially available motorized orthosis that allows gripping. Methods: A 3D light scanner was used to produce a personalized replacement [...] Read more.
Background: This paper presents a novel approach for a hand prosthesis consisting of a flexible, anthropomorphic, 3D-printed replacement hand combined with a commercially available motorized orthosis that allows gripping. Methods: A 3D light scanner was used to produce a personalized replacement hand. The wrist of the replacement hand was printed of rigid material; the rest of the hand was printed of flexible material. A standard arm liner was used to enable the user’s arm stump to be connected to the replacement hand. With computer-aided design, two different concepts were developed for the scanned hand model: In the first concept, the replacement hand was attached to the arm liner with a screw. The second concept involved attaching with a commercially available fastening system; furthermore, a skeleton was designed that was located within the flexible part of the replacement hand. Results: 3D-multi-material printing of the two different hands was unproblematic and inexpensive. The printed hands had approximately the weight of the real hand. When testing the replacement hands with the orthosis it was possible to prove a convincing everyday functionality. For example, it was possible to grip and lift a 1-L water bottle. In addition, a pen could be held, making writing possible. Conclusions: This first proof-of-concept study encourages further testing with users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A One-Year, Multicenter, Retrospective Evaluation of Narrow and Low-Profile Abutments Used to Rehabilitate Complete Edentulous Lower Arches: The OT Bridge Concept
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 352-361; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040033 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate preliminary data on survival and success rates of immediately loaded, screw-retained, restorations delivered on lower arches using narrow and low-profile OT Equator abutments. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed data of patients rehabilitated with OT Bridge (fixed prosthetic system built on [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate preliminary data on survival and success rates of immediately loaded, screw-retained, restorations delivered on lower arches using narrow and low-profile OT Equator abutments. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed data of patients rehabilitated with OT Bridge (fixed prosthetic system built on OT Equator) prosthetic concept from November 2017 to February 2019 in five different centers. Outcome measures were implant and prosthetic survival rates, biological and technical complications, marginal bone loss (MBL), oral health impact profile (OHIP), bleeding on probing, and plaque index. Results: A total of 60 implants were inserted in 12 patients. Patients were followed for a mean period of 15.8 months (range 12–24). All the patients received OT Equator as intermediate abutments. Four out of 60 implants were connected to the prosthetic framework using only the Seeger system, without a screw. One year after loading, three implants failed (implant survival rate of 95.0%) in two patients. No prosthesis failed and no major biological and technical complications were experienced. One year after initial loading, the marginal bone level was 0.32 ± 0.2 mm. The OHIP before treatment was 87.7 ± 6.0. One year after treatment, OHIP was 23.6 ± 1.2. The difference was statistically significant (64.1 ± 7.2; p = 0.0000). One year after loading, 8.9% of the examined implant sites present positive bleeding on probing, while 5.8% of the implant sites presented plaque. Conclusions: The OT Equator abutments showed successful results when used to support mandible fixed dental prosthesis delivered on 4–6 implants. Whole prosthetic survival and success rates, high patient satisfaction, and good biological parameters were experienced one year after function. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
TIPS for Scaling up Research in Upper Limb Prosthetics
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 340-351; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040032 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Many research initiatives have been employed in upper limb prosthetics (ULP) in the last few decades. The body of knowledge is growing and inspired by new and interesting technology that has been brought to the market to facilitate functioning of people with upper [...] Read more.
Many research initiatives have been employed in upper limb prosthetics (ULP) in the last few decades. The body of knowledge is growing and inspired by new and interesting technology that has been brought to the market to facilitate functioning of people with upper limb defects. However, a lot of research initiatives do not reach the target population. Several reasons can be identified as to why research does not move beyond the lab, such as lack of research quality, disappointing results of new initiatives, lack of funding to further develop promising initiatives, and poor implementation or dissemination of results. In this paper, we will appraise the current status of the research in ULP. Furthermore, we will try to provide food for thought to scale up research in ULP, focusing on (1) translation of research findings, (2) the quality of innovations in the light of evidence-based medicine and evidence-based practice, (3) patient involvement, and (4) spreading of research findings by focusing on implementation and dissemination of results and collaboration in a national and international perspective. With this paper, we aim to open the discussion on scaling up research in the community of professionals working in the field of ULP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics and Rehabilitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Nitride-Coated and Anodic-Oxidized Titanium Promote a Higher Fibroblast and Reduced Streptococcus gordonii Proliferation Compared to the Uncoated Titanium
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 333-339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040031 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 496
Abstract
Titanium shows optimal biocompatibility properties; however, its gray color may be a limit for aesthetic results of dental rehabilitations. Some surface treatments that change the color of the material have been proposed. The aim of this study is to, in vitro, investigate the [...] Read more.
Titanium shows optimal biocompatibility properties; however, its gray color may be a limit for aesthetic results of dental rehabilitations. Some surface treatments that change the color of the material have been proposed. The aim of this study is to, in vitro, investigate the biocompatibility of the surfaces subjected to titanium nitride (NiT) coating and anodic-oxidized (AO) treatment and their propensity to impair bacterial proliferation. The viability of primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) has been evaluated through a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay in three experimental groups: uncoated titanium (UNCOATED), titanium nitride (NiT)-coated surface, and anodic-oxidized (AO) titanium. Bacterial proliferation experiments were performed using a Streptococcus gordonii clinical isolate in contact with the three different above-mentioned materials. The treated surfaces (NiT and AO) showed a significantly higher fibroblast proliferation than the uncoated titanium alloy (p < 0.05). In contrast, Streptococcus gordonii growth was significantly higher on the untreated titanium (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology, Regenerative and Staminal Cells)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Fabrication Method on Fracture Strength of Provisional Implant-Supported Fixed Dental Prostheses
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 325-332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040030 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 524
Abstract
There has been an increase in utilizing 3D printers in dental restorations. The purpose of the study is to compare mechanical properties of 3D-printed prostheses to those of self-cured and/or computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) restorations. A metal master typodont was prepared for the [...] Read more.
There has been an increase in utilizing 3D printers in dental restorations. The purpose of the study is to compare mechanical properties of 3D-printed prostheses to those of self-cured and/or computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) restorations. A metal master typodont was prepared for the mandibular left sextant with implant analogs embedded at the first premolar and first molar positions with a missing second premolar. Three-unit provisional fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) was designed utilizing the 3Shape tooth library and forty-five uniform specimens were fabricated with different materials: self-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (N = 15), milled PMMA CAD-CAM blocks (N = 15) and 3D-printed resin (N = 15). All specimens were tested using an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min by an axial load on the occlusal surface of the second premolar pontic site. Statistical analysis was completed with Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. Mean fracture force was 300.61 N, 294.64 N and 408.49 N for self-cured PMMA, milled PMMA and 3D-printed resin, respectively. Mean force at FDP fracture of 3D-printed resin was significantly greater than the mean fracture force of either self-cured (p = 0.016, 95% CI [17.86, 197.91]) or milled (p = 0.010, 95% CI [23.83, 203.88]) PMMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prosthodontics)
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Open AccessEditorial
Covid-19 Pandemic: The Use of Protective Visor in the Dentistry Degree Course of Dental Prosthetics Technology of the University of Messina
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 321-324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040029 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 510
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties of Laser-Sintered 3D-Printed Cobalt Chromium and Soft-Milled Cobalt Chromium
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 313-320; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040028 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 528
Abstract
Purpose: To compare the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of laser-sintered/3D-printed cobalt chromium (LS CoCr) with soft-milled cobalt chromium (SM CoCr) to assess their suitability for use in high-stress areas in the oral cavity. Material and Method: Two computer-aided manufacturing methods were used [...] Read more.
Purpose: To compare the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of laser-sintered/3D-printed cobalt chromium (LS CoCr) with soft-milled cobalt chromium (SM CoCr) to assess their suitability for use in high-stress areas in the oral cavity. Material and Method: Two computer-aided manufacturing methods were used to fabricate dumbbell specimens in accordance with the ASTM standard E8. Specimens were fractured using tensile testing and elastic modulus, and proof stress and ultimate tensile strength were calculated. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Plate specimens were also fabricated for the examination of hardness and elastic modulus using nanoindentation. Unpaired t-test was used to evaluate statistical significance. Results: LS CoCr specimens were found to have significantly higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and proof stress (PS) (p < 0.05) but not a significantly higher elastic modulus (p > 0.05). Examination of the dumbbell fracture surfaces showed uniform structure for the LS CoCr specimens whilst the SM CoCr specimens were perforated with porosities; neither showed an obvious point of fracture. Nanoindentation also showed that LS CoCr specimens possessed higher hardness compared with SM CoCr specimens. Conclusion: LS CoCr and SM CoCr specimens were both found to exhibit uniformly dense structure; although porosities were noted in the SM CoCr specimens. LS CoCr specimens were found to have superior tensile properties, likely due to lack of porosities, however both had mean values higher than those reported in the literature for cast CoCr. Uniformity of structure and high tensile strength indicates that LS CoCr and SM CoCr fabricated alloys are suitable for long-span metallic frameworks for use in the field of prosthodontics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prosthodontics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
3D Computer-Aided Design Reconstructions and 3D Multi-Material Polymer Replica Printings of the First “Iron Hand” of Franconian Knight Gottfried (Götz) von Berlichingen (1480–1562): An Overview
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 304-312; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040027 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
Knight Götz von Berlichingen (1480–1562) lost his right hand distal to the wrist due to a cannon ball splinter injury in 1504 in the Landshut War of Succession at the age of 24. Early on, Götz commissioned a gunsmith to build the first [...] Read more.
Knight Götz von Berlichingen (1480–1562) lost his right hand distal to the wrist due to a cannon ball splinter injury in 1504 in the Landshut War of Succession at the age of 24. Early on, Götz commissioned a gunsmith to build the first “Iron Hand,” in which the artificial thumb and two finger blocks could be moved in their basic joints by a spring mechanism and released by a push button. Some years later, probably around 1530, a second “Iron Hand” was built, in which the fingers could be moved passively in all joints. In this review, the 3D computer-aided design (CAD) reconstructions and 3D multi-material polymer replica printings of the first “Iron hand“, which were developed in the last few years at Offenburg University, are presented. Even by today’s standards, the first “Iron Hand”—as could be shown in the replicas—demonstrates sophisticated mechanics and well thought-out functionality and still offers inspiration and food for discussion when it comes to the question of an artificial prosthetic replacement for a hand. It is also outlined how some of the ideas of this mechanical passive prosthesis can be translated into a modern motorized active prosthetic hand by using simple, commercially available electronic components. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Ascending Aorta Resection and End-to-End Anastomosis: Redistribution of Wall Shear Stress Induced by a Bioprosthetic Heart Valve
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 297-303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040026 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Although aortic resection and end-to-end anastomosis are applied to repair ascending aortic aneurysm, there is a lack of information on the late risk of post-operative complications, such as aortic dissection and aneurysmal re-dilatation. It is recognized that altered hemodynamic forces exerted on an [...] Read more.
Although aortic resection and end-to-end anastomosis are applied to repair ascending aortic aneurysm, there is a lack of information on the late risk of post-operative complications, such as aortic dissection and aneurysmal re-dilatation. It is recognized that altered hemodynamic forces exerted on an aortic wall play an important role on dissection and aneurysm formation. We present a case in which the hemodynamic forces were investigated prior and after repair of an ascending aorta treated by resection with end-to-end anastomosis and a bioprosthetic heart valve. Post-operative wall shear stress was redistributed uniformly along the vessel circumference, and this may suggest a reduced risk of complications near aortic root, but not exclude the re-dilatation of the ascending aorta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioengineering and Biomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Iodoform-Blended Portland Cement for Dentistry
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 277-296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040025 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Portland cement-based formulations blended with radiopacifying agents are popular endodontic materials for various root filling and pulp capping applications. Iodoform (CHI3) is an alternative candidate radiopacifier whose impact on the setting, bioactivity, antimicrobial properties and cytotoxicity of white Portland cement were [...] Read more.
Portland cement-based formulations blended with radiopacifying agents are popular endodontic materials for various root filling and pulp capping applications. Iodoform (CHI3) is an alternative candidate radiopacifier whose impact on the setting, bioactivity, antimicrobial properties and cytotoxicity of white Portland cement were evaluated in this study. Isothermal conduction calorimetry and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) showed that 20 wt% iodoform had no significant impact on the kinetics of cement hydration with respect to the formation of the major calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel product (throughout the 28-day observation). Conversely, transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that iodine was incorporated into the ettringite (Ca₆Al₂(SO₄)₃(OH)₁₂·26H₂O) product phase. Both iodoform-blended and pure Portland cements exhibited comparable biocompatibility with MG63 human osteosarcoma cells and similar bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer upon immersion in simulated body fluid. By virtue of their high alkalinity, both cements inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. However, in all cases, iodoform enhanced the antimicrobial effect and significantly reduced the minimum bactericidal concentration of the cement. In conclusion, iodoform offers antimicrobial advantages in Portland cement-based formulations where oral biofilm formation threatens the success of root filling materials and dentine substitutes. The reactivity with the calcium aluminosulfate components of the hydrating cement matrix warrants further research to understand the long-term stability of the cement matrix in the presence of iodoform. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Water Dilution on Full-Arch Gypsum Implant Master Casts
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 266-276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040024 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess if the setting expansion, compressive strength, compressive modulus and Knoop hardness is reduced in Type III, IV and V gypsum products when excess water is added to recommended water/powder (W/P) ratios for full-arch implant master [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess if the setting expansion, compressive strength, compressive modulus and Knoop hardness is reduced in Type III, IV and V gypsum products when excess water is added to recommended water/powder (W/P) ratios for full-arch implant master casts. Four properties were measured: linear setting expansion, compressive strength, compressive modulus, and Knoop hardness. Three dental stones were evaluated: ISO Type III, Type IV, and Type V. Water was added to recommended W/P ratios as follows: (1) 0%, the manufacturer’s recommend W/P ratio, (2) 50%, 1.5 times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, (3) 100%, three times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, (4) 150%, 2.5 times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, and (5) 200%, three times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water. For all three gypsum types, 50% water additions minimally affected the setting expansion and compressive modulus (p > 0.05), but lowered compressive strength by 26% to 52% (p < 0.05). Knoop hardness was lowered by 24% and 48% for Types V and III (p < 0.05), whereas Type IV was not significantly affected (p > 0.05). With few exceptions, the physical properties for the three gypsum types reached minimum values at 100% dilution, with few changes noted at higher dilutions. Increased W/P ratios did not adequately reduce the setting expansion and adversely affected other physical properties. Of the gypsums tested, Type IV is still recommended due to its lower setting expansion for full-arch implant master casts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prosthodontics)
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Open AccessArticle
Occlusal Load Considerations in Implant-Supported Fixed Restorations
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 252-265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040023 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
The advent of new technologies in the field of medicine and dentistry is creating improvements that lead clinicians to have materials and procedures able to improve patients’ quality of life. The aim of this article is to evaluate occlusion load and its consequences [...] Read more.
The advent of new technologies in the field of medicine and dentistry is creating improvements that lead clinicians to have materials and procedures able to improve patients’ quality of life. The aim of this article is to evaluate occlusion load and its consequences on fixed implant-supported prosthesis. New materials have granted clinicians the possibility achieve great aesthetic results in dental prosthesis, and new procedures allow them to standardize and give precise and repeatable results, especially for the functional and long-term stability aspects of products. Some principles should be carefully evaluated and applied to every dental prosthesis; the evaluation of the forces and fitting of meso-structures to dental implants, an aspect that is often not well considered by clinicians, is the main focus of this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prosthesis and Prosthetic Materials)
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Open AccessCase Report
A Modified Technique for Fabricating Customized Angled Dual Abutments for Implants with Severe Angulations
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 246-251; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040022 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 468
Abstract
Ideally, dental implants should be placed parallel to each other and perpendicular to the occlusal forces. However, they might be implanted with undesirable angulations due to anatomic limitations such as proximity to infra alveolar nerve or maxillary sinus or dentist incompetency. Improper angulation [...] Read more.
Ideally, dental implants should be placed parallel to each other and perpendicular to the occlusal forces. However, they might be implanted with undesirable angulations due to anatomic limitations such as proximity to infra alveolar nerve or maxillary sinus or dentist incompetency. Improper angulation is often addressed at the prosthetic stage of the treatment via using angled abutments. However, severely angled implants could be more challenging regarding the restoration of both esthetics and function. This article presents a cost effective, simple and practical method for fabricating customized angled abutments for restoring severely angled abutments. Full article
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