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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Iodoform-Blended Portland Cement for Dentistry

1
State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 / Published: 7 October 2020
Portland cement-based formulations blended with radiopacifying agents are popular endodontic materials for various root filling and pulp capping applications. Iodoform (CHI3) is an alternative candidate radiopacifier whose impact on the setting, bioactivity, antimicrobial properties and cytotoxicity of white Portland cement were evaluated in this study. Isothermal conduction calorimetry and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) showed that 20 wt% iodoform had no significant impact on the kinetics of cement hydration with respect to the formation of the major calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel product (throughout the 28-day observation). Conversely, transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that iodine was incorporated into the ettringite (Ca₆Al₂(SO₄)₃(OH)₁₂·26H₂O) product phase. Both iodoform-blended and pure Portland cements exhibited comparable biocompatibility with MG63 human osteosarcoma cells and similar bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer upon immersion in simulated body fluid. By virtue of their high alkalinity, both cements inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. However, in all cases, iodoform enhanced the antimicrobial effect and significantly reduced the minimum bactericidal concentration of the cement. In conclusion, iodoform offers antimicrobial advantages in Portland cement-based formulations where oral biofilm formation threatens the success of root filling materials and dentine substitutes. The reactivity with the calcium aluminosulfate components of the hydrating cement matrix warrants further research to understand the long-term stability of the cement matrix in the presence of iodoform. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium silicate cement; Portland cement; endodontic bioceramic; cement hydration; iodoform; radiopacifier; magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; isothermal conduction calorimetry; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; antimicrobial calcium silicate cement; Portland cement; endodontic bioceramic; cement hydration; iodoform; radiopacifier; magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; isothermal conduction calorimetry; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; antimicrobial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Q.; Deacon, A.D.; Coleman, N.J. Iodoform-Blended Portland Cement for Dentistry. Prosthesis 2020, 2, 277-296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040025

AMA Style

Li Q, Deacon AD, Coleman NJ. Iodoform-Blended Portland Cement for Dentistry. Prosthesis. 2020; 2(4):277-296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Qiu; Deacon, Andrew D.; Coleman, Nichola J. 2020. "Iodoform-Blended Portland Cement for Dentistry" Prosthesis 2, no. 4: 277-296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040025

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