The objective of this study was to assess if the setting expansion, compressive strength, compressive modulus and Knoop hardness is reduced in Type III, IV and V gypsum products when excess water is added to recommended water/powder (W/P) ratios for full-arch implant master casts. Four properties were measured: linear setting expansion, compressive strength, compressive modulus, and Knoop hardness. Three dental stones were evaluated: ISO Type III, Type IV, and Type V. Water was added to recommended W/P ratios as follows: (1) 0%, the manufacturer’s recommend W/P ratio, (2) 50%, 1.5 times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, (3) 100%, three times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, (4) 150%, 2.5 times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, and (5) 200%, three times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water. For all three gypsum types, 50% water additions minimally affected the setting expansion and compressive modulus (p
> 0.05), but lowered compressive strength by 26% to 52% (p
< 0.05). Knoop hardness was lowered by 24% and 48% for Types V and III (p
< 0.05), whereas Type IV was not significantly affected (p
> 0.05). With few exceptions, the physical properties for the three gypsum types reached minimum values at 100% dilution, with few changes noted at higher dilutions. Increased W/P ratios did not adequately reduce the setting expansion and adversely affected other physical properties. Of the gypsums tested, Type IV is still recommended due to its lower setting expansion for full-arch implant master casts.
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