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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Effect of Water Dilution on Full-Arch Gypsum Implant Master Casts

1
Department of Prosthodontics, Creighton University School of Dentistry, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
2
Division of Prosthodontics, Department of Restorative Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, 9-470 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware Street, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
3
Department of Adult Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical College, 4000 E. Campus Loop South, Lincoln, NE 68585-0740, USA
4
Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Healthcare System, Omaha NE, Professor and Director Section of Biomaterials, Department of Adult Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical College, Lincoln, NE 68585-0740, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2020 / Revised: 27 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 / Published: 7 October 2020
The objective of this study was to assess if the setting expansion, compressive strength, compressive modulus and Knoop hardness is reduced in Type III, IV and V gypsum products when excess water is added to recommended water/powder (W/P) ratios for full-arch implant master casts. Four properties were measured: linear setting expansion, compressive strength, compressive modulus, and Knoop hardness. Three dental stones were evaluated: ISO Type III, Type IV, and Type V. Water was added to recommended W/P ratios as follows: (1) 0%, the manufacturer’s recommend W/P ratio, (2) 50%, 1.5 times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, (3) 100%, three times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, (4) 150%, 2.5 times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water, and (5) 200%, three times the manufacturer’s recommendation of water. For all three gypsum types, 50% water additions minimally affected the setting expansion and compressive modulus (p > 0.05), but lowered compressive strength by 26% to 52% (p < 0.05). Knoop hardness was lowered by 24% and 48% for Types V and III (p < 0.05), whereas Type IV was not significantly affected (p > 0.05). With few exceptions, the physical properties for the three gypsum types reached minimum values at 100% dilution, with few changes noted at higher dilutions. Increased W/P ratios did not adequately reduce the setting expansion and adversely affected other physical properties. Of the gypsums tested, Type IV is still recommended due to its lower setting expansion for full-arch implant master casts. View Full-Text
Keywords: gypsum; casts; setting expansion; implants; dental materials gypsum; casts; setting expansion; implants; dental materials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sheets, J.L.; Wee, A.G.; Simetich, B.; Beatty, M.W. Effect of Water Dilution on Full-Arch Gypsum Implant Master Casts. Prosthesis 2020, 2, 266-276. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040024

AMA Style

Sheets JL, Wee AG, Simetich B, Beatty MW. Effect of Water Dilution on Full-Arch Gypsum Implant Master Casts. Prosthesis. 2020; 2(4):266-276. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040024

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sheets, James L.; Wee, Alvin G.; Simetich, Bobby; Beatty, Mark W. 2020. "Effect of Water Dilution on Full-Arch Gypsum Implant Master Casts" Prosthesis 2, no. 4: 266-276. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/prosthesis2040024

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