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Volume 1, June

Oceans, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 4 articles

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Article
Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Myctophids in the Oxygen Minimum Zone Ecosystem of the Gulf of California
Oceans 2020, 1(1), 34-46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1010004 - 21 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Myctophids are key members of mesopelagic communities with a world biomass estimated at 600 million tons. They play a central role in oceanic food webs and are known to perform diel vertical migrations, crossing the thermocline and reaching the oxygen minimum zone, however, [...] Read more.
Myctophids are key members of mesopelagic communities with a world biomass estimated at 600 million tons. They play a central role in oceanic food webs and are known to perform diel vertical migrations, crossing the thermocline and reaching the oxygen minimum zone, however, very scarce information exists on trace element content in these organisms. Therefore, the trace elemental composition (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb) of Triphoturus mexicanus and Benthosema panamense specimens was determined. Zinc (Zn) was the most common trace element for both species, T. mexicanus presented 39.8 µg.g−1 dw and B. panamense 30.6 µg.g−1 dw. Contrasting, for T. mexicanus the less abundant trace element was Ni (0.332 µg.g−1 dw) and for B. panamense was Pb (0.236 µg.g−1 dw). T. mexicanus exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb in comparison to B. panamense, and these differences seemed to be related to inherent physiological and/or ecological traits rather than environmental element availability. These diel vertical migrators are crucial in the energy transfer between the deep-sea and epipelagic zones (and vice-versa), and the estimation of the Biomagnification Factor (based on Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) levels revealed that both T. mexicanus and B. panamense play a major role in trace element transfer to higher trophic levels in the pelagic food web of the Gulf of California. Full article
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Communication
Ocean Acidification Does Not Affect Fish Ectoparasite Survival
Oceans 2020, 1(1), 27-33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1010003 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
The juveniles of gnathiid isopods are one of the most common fish ectoparasites in marine habitats and cause deleterious effects on fish by feeding on host blood and lymph. Reef fishes tend to engage in cooperative interactions with cleaning organisms to reduce their [...] Read more.
The juveniles of gnathiid isopods are one of the most common fish ectoparasites in marine habitats and cause deleterious effects on fish by feeding on host blood and lymph. Reef fishes tend to engage in cooperative interactions with cleaning organisms to reduce their ectoparasite load. Ocean acidification (OA) pose multiple threats to marine life. Recently, OA was found to disrupt cleaner fish behaviour in mutualistic cleaning interactions. However, the potential effects of ocean acidification on this common ectoparasite remains unknown. Here, we test if exposure to an acidification scenario predicted by IPCC to the end of the century (RCP 8.5 – 980 μatm pCO2) affects gnathiid survival. Our results show that ocean acidification did not have any effects on gnathiid survival rate during all three juvenile life stages. Thus, we advocate that the need for cleaning interactions will persist in potentially acidified coral reefs. Nevertheless, to better understand gnathiid resilience to ocean acidification, future studies are needed to evaluate ocean acidification impacts on gnathiid reproduction and physiology as well as host-parasite interactions. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Sea Surface Temperature When Surfing
Oceans 2020, 1(1), 6-26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1010002 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
Nearshore coastal waters are among the most dynamic regions on the planet and difficult to sample from conventional oceanographic platforms. It has been suggested that environmental sampling of the nearshore could be improved by mobilising vast numbers of citizens who partake in marine [...] Read more.
Nearshore coastal waters are among the most dynamic regions on the planet and difficult to sample from conventional oceanographic platforms. It has been suggested that environmental sampling of the nearshore could be improved by mobilising vast numbers of citizens who partake in marine recreational sports, like surfing. In this paper, we compared two approaches for measuring sea surface temperature (SST), an Essential Climate Variable, when surfing. One technique involved attaching a commercially-available miniature temperature logger (Onset UTBI-001 TidbiT v2) to the leash of the surfboard (tether connecting surfer and surfboard) and the second, attaching a surfboard fin (Smartfin) that contained an environmental sensor package. Between July 2017 and July 2018, 148 surfing sessions took place, 90 in the southwest UK and 58 in San Diego, California, USA. During these sessions, both Smartfin and leash sensors were deployed simultaneously. On the leash, two TidbiT v2 sensors were attached, one with (denoted LP) and one without (denoted LU) a protective boot, designed to shield the sensor from sunlight. The median temperature from each technique, during each surfing session, was extracted and compared along with independent water temperature data from a nearby pier and benthic logger, and matched with photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) data from satellite observations (used as a proxy for solar radiation during each surf). Results indicate a mean difference ( δ ) of 0.13 °C and mean absolute difference ( ϵ ) of 0.14 °C between Smartfin and LU, and a δ of 0.04 °C and an ϵ of 0.06 °C between Smartfin and LP. For UK measurements, we observed better agreement between methods ( δ = 0.07 °C and ϵ = 0.08 °C between Smartfin and LU, and δ = 0.00 °C and ϵ = 0.03 °C between Smartfin and LP) when compared with measurements in San Diego ( δ = 0.22 °C and ϵ = 0.23 °C between Smartfin and LU, and δ = 0.08 °C and ϵ = 0.11 °C between Smartfin and LP). Surfing SST data were found to agree well, in general, with independent temperature data from a nearby pier and benthic logger. Differences in SST between leash and Smartfin were found to correlate with PAR, both for the unprotected (LU) and protected (LP) TidbiT v2 sensors, explaining the regional differences in the comparison (PAR generally higher during US surfing sessions than UK sessions). Considering that the Smartfin is sheltered from ambient light by the surfboard, unlike the leash, results indicate the leash TidbiT v2 sensors warm with exposure to sunlight biasing the SST data positively, a result consistent with published tests on similar sensors in shallow waters. We matched all LU data collected prior to this study with satellite PAR products and corrected for solar heating. Results highlight the need to design temperature sensor packages that minimise exposure from solar heating when towed in the surface ocean. Full article
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Editorial
MDPI Oceans: A New Publication Channel for Open Access Science Focused on the Ocean
Oceans 2020, 1(1), 1-5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1010001 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 3213
Abstract
The ocean is the most important subsystem of the Earth’s climate system and functions as its heart, regulating the energy distribution of the planet [...] Full article
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