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Oceans, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 12 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Future Changes in Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Genesis Environment in High-Resolution Large-Ensemble Simulations
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 355-368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040024 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 628
Abstract
This study applied the database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF) and tropical cyclone (TC) genesis (TCG) environment factors to project future changes in the frequency and characteristics of TCs over the western North Pacific. We examined current and future [...] Read more.
This study applied the database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF) and tropical cyclone (TC) genesis (TCG) environment factors to project future changes in the frequency and characteristics of TCs over the western North Pacific. We examined current and future TCG environmental conditions in terms of the contribution of five factors: shear line (SL), confluence region (CR), monsoon gyre, easterly wave (EW), and Rossby wave energy dispersion from a preexisting TC (PTC). Among summer and autumn TCs, the contributions of SL and EW to future TCG increased by about 4% and 1%, respectively, whereas those of CR and PTC decreased by the same amounts. In future climate projections, the average lifetime maximum intensity (LMI) of TCs associated with EW (EW-TCs) was significantly higher than those of TCs associated with other factors except PTC. At higher sea surface temperatures and wetter conditions, higher lower-tropospheric relative vorticity was related to increases in the development rate of EW-TCs. Findings of this study suggest that increases in the average LMI of all future TCs were caused by large contributions from the average LMI of future EW-TCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Cyclone Future Projections)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Polyphosphates and Soluble Pyrophosphatase Activity in the Seaweed Ulva pseudorotundata
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 343-354; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040023 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 563
Abstract
The hydrolytic activity of different types of polyphosphates, and the induction of soluble pyrophosphatase (sPPase; EC 3.6.1.1) activity have been assessed in cell extracts of nutrient limited green seaweed Ulva pseudorotundata Cormaci, Furnari & Alongi subjected to different phosphorus regimes. Following a long [...] Read more.
The hydrolytic activity of different types of polyphosphates, and the induction of soluble pyrophosphatase (sPPase; EC 3.6.1.1) activity have been assessed in cell extracts of nutrient limited green seaweed Ulva pseudorotundata Cormaci, Furnari & Alongi subjected to different phosphorus regimes. Following a long period of nutrient limitation, the addition of different types of (poly)phosphates to artificial seawater enhanced growth rates on fresh weight and area, but not on dry weight bases. Chlorophyll and internal P content were affected by P supply. In contrast, internal soluble reactive P was kept low and was little affected by P additions. Soluble protein content increased in all treatments, as ammonium was added to prevent N limitation. The C:N:P atomic ratio revealed great changes depending on the nutrient regime along the experiment. Cell extracts of U. pseudorotundata were capable of hydrolyzing polyphosphates of different chain lengths (pyro, tripoly, trimeta, and polyphosphates) at high rates. The sPPase activity was kept very low in P limited plants. Following N and different kind of P additions, sPPase activity was kept low in the control, but slightly stimulated after 3 days when expressed on a protein basis. The highest activities were found at the end of the experiment under pyro and polyphosphate additions (7 days). The importance of alternative P sources to phosphate and the potential role of internal soluble pyrophosphatases in macroalgae are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Probabilistic Forecasts of Sea Ice Trajectories in the Arctic: Impact of Uncertainties in Surface Wind and Ice Cohesion
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 326-342; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040022 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
We study the response of the Lagrangian sea ice model neXtSIM to the uncertainty in sea surface wind and sea ice cohesion. The ice mechanics in neXtSIM are based on a brittle-like rheological framework. The study considers short-term ensemble forecasts of Arctic sea [...] Read more.
We study the response of the Lagrangian sea ice model neXtSIM to the uncertainty in sea surface wind and sea ice cohesion. The ice mechanics in neXtSIM are based on a brittle-like rheological framework. The study considers short-term ensemble forecasts of Arctic sea ice from January to April 2008. Ensembles are generated by perturbing the wind inputs and ice cohesion field both separately and jointly. The resulting uncertainty in the probabilistic forecasts is evaluated statistically based on the analysis of Lagrangian sea ice trajectories as sampled by virtual drifters seeded in the model to cover the Arctic Ocean and using metrics borrowed from the search-and-rescue literature. The comparison among the different ensembles indicates that wind perturbations dominate the forecast uncertainty (i.e., the absolute spread of the ensemble), while the inhomogeneities in the ice cohesion field significantly increase the degree of anisotropy in the spread—i.e., trajectories drift divergently in different directions. We suggest that in order to obtain enough uncertainties in a sea ice model with brittle-like rheologies, to predict sea ice drift and trajectories, one should consider using ensemble-based simulations where at least wind forcing and sea ice cohesion are perturbed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Decomposition of the Recent Increase in the Intensity of Tropical Storms
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 311-325; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040021 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 514
Abstract
In a recent paper, Kossin et al. showed that during the period from 1979 to 2017, there was a statistically significant increase in the ratio of category 3–5 to category 1–5 tropical storm fixes in the ADT-HURSAT satellite dataset of tropical cyclone observations. [...] Read more.
In a recent paper, Kossin et al. showed that during the period from 1979 to 2017, there was a statistically significant increase in the ratio of category 3–5 to category 1–5 tropical storm fixes in the ADT-HURSAT satellite dataset of tropical cyclone observations. The sign of this increase is consistent with previously developed theory and modelling results for how tropical cyclones may change due to climate change. However, without further analysis, it is difficult to understand what the implications of this increase might be for present day tropical cyclone risk. It is also difficult to understand how tropical cyclone risk models might be adjusted to reflect this increase, since this ratio is not typically directly represented in such models. Our goal is therefore to understand the drivers for this increase in terms of changes in the numbers of fixes of different categories of storms in different basins, which are quantities that are more directly related to tropical cyclone risk and risk modelling. We use both heuristic and quantitative methods. We find that the increase in the ratio is mainly driven by a decrease in the denominator (the number of category 1–5 fixes) and to a small extent by a slight increase in the numerator (the number of category 3–5 fixes). The decrease in the denominator is mostly driven by a statistically significant reduction in the number of category 1 fixes outside the North Atlantic. The slight increase in the numerator is mostly driven by a statistically significant increase in the number of category 3–4 fixes in the North Atlantic. Based on these results, we discuss different ways in which the increase in the ratio could be represented in risk models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Cyclone Future Projections)
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Open AccessCommunication
Feeding Ecology of Sicydium bustamantei (Greeff 1884, Gobiidae) Post-Larvae: The “Little Fish” of São Tomé Island
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 300-310; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040020 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 808
Abstract
The rivers of São Tomé Island are colonized by Sicydium bustamantei (Greeff 1882), an amphidromous fish that spawns in those areas. After hatching, larvae drift to the ocean with the river flow. In the marine realm, the planktonic larvae develop and migrate to [...] Read more.
The rivers of São Tomé Island are colonized by Sicydium bustamantei (Greeff 1882), an amphidromous fish that spawns in those areas. After hatching, larvae drift to the ocean with the river flow. In the marine realm, the planktonic larvae develop and migrate to freshwater as post-larvae. The migrations of post-larvae support important local fisheries at the mouth of rivers in tropical volcanic islands. Amphidromous post-larvae rely on plankton as their main source of organic matter. However, the biology and ecology of S. bustamantei in the West African islands are understudied, despite its importance for local fisheries. Thus, this study aimed to start bridging this gap by studying its feeding ecology. Our objectives were to identify the main prey of S. bustamantei post-larvae, combining gut content with stable isotope analyses. The gut contents included zooplankton (Chaetognatha, Ostracoda, and unidentified crustaceans), debris from plant and/or macroalgae-derived material, and microplastics (including microfibers). The stable isotopes analysis indicated that zooplankton and macroalgae detritus were the main sources of organic matter assimilated by this species. We also demonstrated that S. bustamantei post-larvae are omnivorous and secondary consumers. These data provide pioneering information that can be used in management plans that still need to be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Larval Biology and Ecology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Application of Photo-Identification and Lengthened Deployment Periods to Baited Remote Underwater Video Stations (BRUVS) Abundance Estimates of Coral Reef Sharks
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 274-299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040019 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
Baited Remote Underwater Video Stations (BRUVS) are widely used for monitoring relative abundances of fishes, especially sharks, but only the maximum number of individuals seen at any one time (MaxN) is usually recorded. In both the Cayman Islands and the Amirante Islands, Seychelles, [...] Read more.
Baited Remote Underwater Video Stations (BRUVS) are widely used for monitoring relative abundances of fishes, especially sharks, but only the maximum number of individuals seen at any one time (MaxN) is usually recorded. In both the Cayman Islands and the Amirante Islands, Seychelles, we used photo-ID to recognise individual sharks recorded on BRUVS videos. This revealed that for most species the actual numbers of separate individuals (IndN) visiting the BRUVS were significantly higher than MaxN, with, for example, ratios of IndN to MaxN being 1.17 and 1.24 for Caribbean reef, Carcharhinus perezi, and nurse, Ginglymostoma cirratum, sharks in the Cayman Islands, and 2.46 and 1.37 for blacktip reef, C. melanopterus, and grey reef, C. amblyrhynchos, sharks, respectively, in the Amirantes. Further, for most species, increasing the BRUVS deployment period beyond the 60 min normally used increased the observed IndN, with more than twice as many individuals in the Cayman Islands and >1.4 times as many individuals in the Amirantes being recorded after 120 min as after 60 min. For most species, MaxN and IndN rose exponentially with time, so data from different deployment periods cannot reliably be compared using catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) calculated as catch-per-unit-time. In both study areas, the time of first arrival of individuals varied with species from <1 min to >2 h. Individually identifiable sharks were re-sighted after up to 429 days over 10 km away in the Cayman Islands and 814 days over 23 km away in the Amirantes, demonstrating that many individuals range over considerable distances. Analysis of Cayman re-sightings data yielded mean population estimates of 76 ± 23 (SE) and 199 ± 42 (SE) for C. perezi and G. cirratum, respectively. The results demonstrate that, for sharks, the application of both photo-identification and longer deployment periods to BRUVS can improve the precision of abundance estimates and provide knowledge of population size and ranging behaviour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variability of the Phytoplankton Dynamics in the Black Sea Inner Basin
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 251-273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040018 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 728
Abstract
We explore the patterns of Black Sea phytoplankton growth as driven by the thermohaline structure and circulation system and the freshwater nutrient loads. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the phytoplankton blooms is examined using hydrodynamic simulations that resolve mesoscale eddies and online coupled [...] Read more.
We explore the patterns of Black Sea phytoplankton growth as driven by the thermohaline structure and circulation system and the freshwater nutrient loads. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the phytoplankton blooms is examined using hydrodynamic simulations that resolve mesoscale eddies and online coupled bio-geochemical model. This study suggests that the bloom seasonality is homogeneous across geographic locations of the Black Sea inner basin, with the strongest bloom occurring in winter (February–March), followed by weaker bloom in spring (April–May), summer deep biomass maximum (DBM) (June–September) and a final bloom in autumn (October–November). The winter phytoplankton bloom relies on vertical mixing of nitrate from the intermediate layers, where nitrate is abundant. The winter bloom is highly dependent on the strength of the cold intermediate layers (CIL), while spring/summer blooms take advantage of the CIL weakness. The maximum phytoplankton transport across the North Western Shelf (NWS) break occurs in September, prior to the basin interior autumn bloom. Bloom initiation in early autumn is associated with the spreading of NWS waters, which in turn is caused by an increase in mesoscale eddy activity in late summer months. In summary, the intrusion of low salinity and nitrate-rich water into the basin interior triggers erosion of the thermocline, resulting in vertical nitrate uplifting. The seasonal phytoplankton succession is strongly influenced by the recent CIL disintegration and amplification of the Black Sea circulation, which may alter the natural Black Sea nitrate dynamics, with subsequent effects on phytoplankton and in turn on all marine life. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ontogeny of Orientation during the Early Life History of the Pelagic Teleost Mahi-Mahi, Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 237-250; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040017 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Understanding the orientation behavior and capabilities in early life history (ELH) of fishes is critical for studying their dispersal but has, surprisingly, never been tested in any pelagic species. We here investigate the ontogeny of orientation and swimming abilities of the pelagic Coryphaena [...] Read more.
Understanding the orientation behavior and capabilities in early life history (ELH) of fishes is critical for studying their dispersal but has, surprisingly, never been tested in any pelagic species. We here investigate the ontogeny of orientation and swimming abilities of the pelagic Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 larvae, hereafter mahi-mahi, through their ELH stages using the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC) in a laboratory setup. The DISC was deployed in a large (3 m3) circular aquarium in order to control the stimulus perceived by the fish and to identify behavioral response at the individual, developmental stage, and population levels. A total of 79 individual ranging from 7 to 23 days post hatch and from preflexion to early juvenile stages were exposed to a directional light mimicking the sun’s position. Orientation towards the light direction was tested by switching the light by 180° among trials. To compare the orientation among development stages, we scaled the directionality by the swimming ability, therein defined as “directionality competence”. The results show that while mahi-mahi directionality competence increases through ontogeny, they acquire a positive and directional phototaxis behavior at the flexion stage. This potential solar orientation is kept through the early juvenile stage. Mahi-mahi may thus be able to use the sun as a compass in the open ocean as observed in the larval stages of demersal species seeking for settlement habitats. This ability notably develops before the improvement of their swimming capabilities, suggesting that early orientation—even at micro-scale—and swimming capabilities may be equally important for the survival of the ELH stages of pelagic species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Larval Biology and Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Acute Seawater Temperature Increase on the Survival of a Fish Ectoparasite
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 215-236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040016 - 04 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Extreme warming events that contribute to mass coral bleaching are occurring with increasing regularity, raising questions about their effect on coral reef ecological interactions. However, the effects of such events on parasite-host interactions are largely ignored. Gnathiid isopods are common, highly mobile, external [...] Read more.
Extreme warming events that contribute to mass coral bleaching are occurring with increasing regularity, raising questions about their effect on coral reef ecological interactions. However, the effects of such events on parasite-host interactions are largely ignored. Gnathiid isopods are common, highly mobile, external parasites of coral reef fishes, that feed on blood during the juvenile stage. They have direct and indirect impacts on their fish hosts, and are the major food source for cleaner fishes. However, how these interactions might be impacted by increased temperatures is unknown. We examined the effects of acute temperature increases, similar to those observed during mass bleaching events, on survivorship of gnathiid isopod juveniles. Laboratory experiments were conducted using individuals from one species (Gnathia aureamaculosa) from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and multiple unknown species from the central Philippines. Fed and unfed GBR gnathiids were held in temperature treatments of 29 °C to 32 °C and fed Philippines gnathiids were held at 28 °C to 36 °C. Gnathiids from both locations showed rapid mortality when held in temperatures 2 °C to 3 °C above average seasonal sea surface temperature (32 °C). This suggests environmental changes in temperature can influence gnathiid survival, which could have significant ecological consequences for host-parasite-cleaner fish interactions during increased temperature events. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Seawater Ageing on Fracture of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Ocean Engineering
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 198-214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040015 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
Carbon fiber reinforced composite materials are finding new applications in highly loaded marine structures such as tidal turbine blades and marine propellers. Such applications require long-term damage resistance while being subjected to continuous seawater immersion. However, few data exist on which to base [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber reinforced composite materials are finding new applications in highly loaded marine structures such as tidal turbine blades and marine propellers. Such applications require long-term damage resistance while being subjected to continuous seawater immersion. However, few data exist on which to base material selection and design. This paper provides a set of results from interlaminar fracture tests on specimens before and after seawater ageing. The focus is on delamination as this is the main failure mechanism for laminated composites under out-of-plane loading. Results show that there are two contributions to changes in fracture toughness during an accelerated wet ageing program: effects due to water and effects due to physical ageing. These are identified and it is shown that this composite retains over 70% of its initial fracture properties even for the worst case examined. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Climate and Local Hydrography Underlie Recent Regime Shifts in Plankton Communities off Galicia (NW Spain)
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 181-197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040014 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
A 29-year-long time series (1990–2018) of phyto- and zooplankton abundance and composition is analyzed to uncover regime shifts related to climate and local oceanography variability. At least two major shifts were identified: one between 1997 and 1998, affecting zooplankton group abundance, phytoplankton species [...] Read more.
A 29-year-long time series (1990–2018) of phyto- and zooplankton abundance and composition is analyzed to uncover regime shifts related to climate and local oceanography variability. At least two major shifts were identified: one between 1997 and 1998, affecting zooplankton group abundance, phytoplankton species assemblages and climatic series, and a second one between 2001 and 2002, affecting microzooplankton group abundance, mesozooplankton species assemblages and local hydrographic series. Upwelling variability was relatively less important than other climatic or local oceanographic variables for the definition of the regimes. Climate-related regimes were influenced by the dominance of cold and dry (1990–1997) vs. warm and wet (1998–2018) periods, and characterized by shifts from low to high life trait diversity in phytoplankton assemblages, and from low to high meroplankton dominance for mesozooplankton. Regimes related to local oceanography were defined by the shift from relatively low (1990–2001) to high (2002–2018) concentrations of nutrients provided by remineralization (or continental inputs) and biological production, and shifts from a low to high abundance of microzooplankton, and from a low to high trait diversity of mesozooplankton species assemblages. These results align with similar shifts described around the same time for most regions of the NE Atlantic. This study points out the different effects of large-scale vs. local environmental variations in shaping plankton assemblages at multiannual time scales. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
The Effects of the UV-Blocker Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3) on Planulae Swimming and Metamorphosis of the Scyphozoans Cassiopea xamachana and Cassiopea frondosa
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 174-180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans1040013 - 24 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Benzophenones are UV-blockers found in most common sunscreens. The ability of Scyphozoan planula larvae of Cassiopea xamachana and C. frondosa to swim and complete metamorphosis in concentrations 0–228 µg/L benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone) was tested. Planulae of both species swam in erratic patterns, 25–30% slower, [...] Read more.
Benzophenones are UV-blockers found in most common sunscreens. The ability of Scyphozoan planula larvae of Cassiopea xamachana and C. frondosa to swim and complete metamorphosis in concentrations 0–228 µg/L benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone) was tested. Planulae of both species swam in erratic patterns, 25–30% slower, and experienced significant death (p < 0.05) in the highest concentrations of oxybenzone tested, whereas the larvae exhibited normal swimming patterns and no death in ≤2.28 µg/L oxybenzone. In addition, metamorphosis decreased 10–30% over 3 days for both species maintained in 228 µg/L oxybenzone. These effects do not involve symbiotic dinoflagellates, as planulae larvae of Cassiopea sp. are aposymbiotic. It is concluded that oxybenzone can have a detrimental impact on these jellyfish. Full article
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