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Oceans, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 16 articles

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Article
Mediterranean Water Properties at the Eastern Limit of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre since 1981
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 266-280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010016 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 691
Abstract
A high-quality hydrographic CTD and Argo float data was used to study the property changes along the westward branch of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the northeast Atlantic between 1981 and 2018. In this period, the temperature and salinity are marked by [...] Read more.
A high-quality hydrographic CTD and Argo float data was used to study the property changes along the westward branch of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the northeast Atlantic between 1981 and 2018. In this period, the temperature and salinity are marked by periods of cooling/freshening and warming/salinification. Since 1981, the MOW properties at the core decreased by −0.015 ± 0.07 °C year1 and −0.003 ± 0.002 year1. The different phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influence the main propagation pathways of the MOW into the North Atlantic basin, thus affecting the trends determined within different NAO-phases. The temperature and salinity show a strong correlation with NAO, with NAO leading the properties by 8 and 7 years, respectively, indicating a delayed response of the ocean to different forcing conditions. A decrease in oxygen concentration (−0.426 ± 0.276 μmol kg1 year1) was calculated for the same period; however, no connection with the NAO was found. Full article
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Article
Millennial-Scale Environmental Variability in Late Quaternary Deep-Sea Sediments from the Demerara Rise, NE Coast of South America
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 246-265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010015 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
We carried out a rock magnetic study of two deep-sea gravity cores from the Demerara Rise, NE South America. Our previous studies provided radiocarbon and paleomagnetic chronologies for these cores. This study presents detailed rock magnetic measurements on these cores in order to [...] Read more.
We carried out a rock magnetic study of two deep-sea gravity cores from the Demerara Rise, NE South America. Our previous studies provided radiocarbon and paleomagnetic chronologies for these cores. This study presents detailed rock magnetic measurements on these cores in order to characterize the rock magnetic mineralogy and grain size as indicators of the overall clastic fraction. We measured the magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence, and isothermal remanence and demagnetized the remanences at several alternating field demagnetization levels. The magnetic intensities estimate the magnetic material concentration (and indirectly the overall clastic fraction) in the cores. Ratios of rock magnetic parameters indicate the relative grain size of the magnetic material (and indirectly the overall clastic grain size). Rock magnetic intensity parameters and rock magnetic ratios both vary systematically and synchronously over the last 30,000 years in both cores. There is a multi-millennial-scale cyclicity, with intervals of high magnetic intensity (high magnetic and clastic content) with low magnetic ratios (coarser magnetic and clastic grain size), alternating in sequence with intervals of low magnetic intensity with high magnetic ratios (finer grain size). There is also a higher-frequency millennial-scale variability in intensity superposed on the multi-millennial-scale variability. There are nine (A–I) multi-millennial-scale intervals in the cores. Intervals A, C, E, G, and I have high magnetic and clastic content with coarser overall magnetic and clastic grain size and are likely intervals of enhanced rainfall and runoff from the NE South American margin to the coastal ocean. In contrast, intervals B, D, F, and H have lower clastic flux with finer overall grain size, probably indicating lower continental rainfall and runoff. During the Holocene, high rainfall and runoff intervals can be related to cooler times and low rainfall and runoff to warmer times. The opposite pattern existed during the Pleistocene, with higher rainfall and runoff during interstadial conditions and lower rainfall and runoff during stadial conditions. We noted a similar pattern of Pleistocene multi-millennial-scale variability in a transect of deep-sea sediment cores along the NE Brazilian margin, from the Cariaco Basin (~10 N) to the NE Brazilian margin (~1° N–4° S). However the NW part of this transect (Cariaco Basin, Demerara Rise, Amazon Fan) has an out-of-phase relationship with the SE part of the transect (NE Brazilian margin) between warm–cold and wet–dry conditions. One possible cause of the high–low rainfall and runoff patterns might be oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), with higher rainfall and runoff associated with a more southerly average position of the ITCZ and lower rainfall and runoff associated with a more northerly average position of the ITCZ. Full article
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Article
Severe Heat Stress Resulted in High Coral Mortality on Maldivian Reefs following the 2015–2016 El Niño Event
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 233-245; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010014 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Coral cover worldwide has been declining due to heat stress caused by climate change. Here we report the impacts of the 2015–2016 El Niño mass coral bleaching event on the coral cover of reefs located on central and northern atolls of the Maldives. [...] Read more.
Coral cover worldwide has been declining due to heat stress caused by climate change. Here we report the impacts of the 2015–2016 El Niño mass coral bleaching event on the coral cover of reefs located on central and northern atolls of the Maldives. We surveyed six reef sites in the Alifu Alifu (Ari) and Baa (South Maalhosmadulu) Atolls using replicate 20 m benthic photo transects at two depths per reef site. Live and recently dead coral cover identified from images differed between reef sites and depth. Recently dead corals on average made up 33% of the coral assemblage at shallow sites and 24% at deep sites. This mortality was significantly lower in massive corals than in branching corals, reaching an average of only 6% compared to 41%, respectively. The best predictors of live coral cover were depth and morphology, with a greater percentage of live coral at deep sites and in massive corals. The same predictors best described the prevalence of recently dead coral, but showed inverse trends to live coral. However, there was high variability among reef sites, which could be attributed to additional local stressors. Coral bleaching and resulting coral mortalities, such as the ones reported here, are of particular concern for small island nations like the Maldives, which are reliant on coral reefs. Full article
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Article
Consistency Is Critical for the Effective Use of Baited Remote Video
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 215-232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010013 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Baited remote underwater videos (BRUV) are popular marine monitoring techniques used for the assessment of motile fauna. Currently, most published studies evaluating BRUV methods stem from environments in the Southern Hemisphere. This has led to stricter and more defined guidelines for the use [...] Read more.
Baited remote underwater videos (BRUV) are popular marine monitoring techniques used for the assessment of motile fauna. Currently, most published studies evaluating BRUV methods stem from environments in the Southern Hemisphere. This has led to stricter and more defined guidelines for the use of these techniques in these areas in comparison to the North Atlantic, where little or no specific guidance exists. This study explores metadata taken from BRUV deployments collected around the UK to understand the influence of methodological and environmental factors on the information gathered during BRUV deployments including species richness, relative abundance and faunal composition. In total, 39 BRUV surveys accumulating in 457 BRUV deployments across South/South-West England and Wales were used in this analysis. This study identified 88 different taxa from 43 families across the 457 deployments. Whilst taxonomic groups such as Labridae, Gadidae and Gobiidae were represented by a high number of species, species diversity for the Clupeidae, Scombridae, Sparidae, Gasterosteidae and Rajidae groups were low and many families were absent altogether. Bait type was consistently identified as one of the most influential factors over species richness, relative abundance and faunal assemblage composition. Image quality and deployment duration were also identified as significant influential factors over relative abundance. As expected, habitat observed was identified as an influential factor over faunal assemblage composition in addition to its significant interaction with image quality, time of deployment, bait type and tide type (spring/neap). Our findings suggest that methodological and environmental factors should be taken into account when designing and implementing monitoring surveys using BRUV techniques. Standardising factors where possible remains key. Fluctuations and variations in data may be attributed to methodological inconsistencies and/or environment factors as well as over time and therefore must be considered when interpreting the data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ROVs and AUVs: New Technologies for the Future of Marine Research)
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Article
An Experimental Approach to Assessing the Roles of Magnesium, Calcium, and Carbonate Ratios in Marine Carbonates
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 193-214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010012 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Marine biomineralization is a globally important biological and geochemical process. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the precipitation of calcium carbonate [CaCO3] within the calcifying fluid of marine organisms, such as corals, crustose coralline algae, and foraminifera, presents one of the most elusive, [...] Read more.
Marine biomineralization is a globally important biological and geochemical process. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the precipitation of calcium carbonate [CaCO3] within the calcifying fluid of marine organisms, such as corals, crustose coralline algae, and foraminifera, presents one of the most elusive, yet relevant areas of biomineralization research, due to the often-impenetrable ability to measure the process in situ. The precipitation of CaCO3 is assumed to be largely controlled by the saturation state [Ω] of the extracellular calcifying fluid. In this study, we mimicked the typical pH and Ω known for the calcifying fluid in corals, while varying the magnesium, calcium, and carbonate concentrations in six chemo-static growth experiments, thereby mimicking various dissolved inorganic carbon concentration mechanisms and ionic movement into the extracellular calcifying fluid. Reduced mineralization and varied CaCO3 morphologies highlight the inhibiting effect of magnesium regardless of pH and Ω and suggests the importance of strong magnesium removal or calcium concentration mechanisms. In respect to ocean acidification studies, this could allow an explanation for why specific marine calcifiers respond differently to lower saturation states. Full article
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Article
An Expert Elicitation of the Effects of Low Salinity Water Exposure on Bottlenose Dolphins
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 179-192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010011 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1919
Abstract
There is increasing concern over anthropogenically driven changes in our oceans and seas, from a variety of stressors. Such stressors include the increased risk of storms and precipitation, offshore industries and increased coastal development which can affect the marine environment. For some coastal [...] Read more.
There is increasing concern over anthropogenically driven changes in our oceans and seas, from a variety of stressors. Such stressors include the increased risk of storms and precipitation, offshore industries and increased coastal development which can affect the marine environment. For some coastal cetacean species, there is an increased exposure to low salinity waters which have been linked with a range of adverse health effects in bottlenose dolphins. Knowledge gaps persist regarding how different time–salinity exposures affect the health and survival of animals. In such data-poor instances, expert elicitation can be used to convert an expert’s qualitative knowledge into subjective probability distributions. The management implications of this stressor and the subjective nature of expert elicitation requires transparency; we have addressed this here, utilizing the Sheffield Elicitation Framework. The results are a series of time response scenarios to estimate time to death in bottlenose dolphins, for use when data are insufficient to estimate probabilistic summaries. This study improves our understanding of how low salinity exposure effects dolphins, guiding priorities for future research, while its outputs can be used to support coastal management on a global scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Mammals in a Changing World)
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Article
Canopy Accumulation: Are Seagrass Meadows a Sink of Microplastics?
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 162-178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010010 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 2071
Abstract
A growing body of research is documenting the accumulation of microplastics within marine sediments around the world. The hydrodynamic influences of seagrasses in coastal environments are shown to increase sedimentation of finer particles and as a result there has been speculation that this [...] Read more.
A growing body of research is documenting the accumulation of microplastics within marine sediments around the world. The hydrodynamic influences of seagrasses in coastal environments are shown to increase sedimentation of finer particles and as a result there has been speculation that this attribute will lead to seagrass meadows acting as a site of elevated microplastic contamination. To date a range of localised studies have provided conflicting answers to this hypothesis. Seagrass meadows provide multiple ecosystem services including vital support roles for a range of fisheries; therefore, there are considerable human health implications for understanding their role as sinks of microplastics. This research investigated the abundance and diversity of microplastics present in temperate North Atlantic seagrass meadow sediments relative to unvegetated sediments and examined how they correlate with the meadow structure and the sediment type. We also placed this data in the context of the current knowledge of microplastics in seagrass sediments through a global meta-analysis of published data. Eight seagrass meadows and adjacent unvegetated sites around the UK were sampled to test for the abundance of microplastic particles in the sediment. Microplastics were found in 98% of the samples, with fibres making up 91.8% of all microplastics identified. Abundance was recorded to overall be 215 ± 163 microplastic particles (MP) kg−1 Dry Weight (DW) of sediment in seagrass and 221 ± 236 MP kg−1 DW of sediment in unvegetated habitats. There were no significant differences found between the number of MP with respect to vegetation. We report evidence of the almost ubiquitous contamination of seagrass sediments with microplastics both in the UK and globally but find that the contamination reflects a general build-up of microplastics in the wider environment rather than becoming concentrated within seagrass as an enhanced sink. Microplastic build up in sediments is hypothesised to be the result of local hydrodynamics and plastic sources rather than the result of elevated habitat level concentration. Although not of a higher abundance in seagrass, such contamination in seagrass is of cause for concern given the high dependency of many species of fish on these habitat types and the potential for plastics to move up the food chain. Full article
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Article
The Price of Coastal Erosion and Flood Risk: A Hedonic Pricing Approach
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 149-161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010009 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 983
Abstract
Accelerated coastal erosion and elevated risks of flooding due to global warming put enormous burden on the ecosystems and economic health of coastal communities. Optimal policies to lessen these negative impacts require an estimation of their costs and benefits. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Accelerated coastal erosion and elevated risks of flooding due to global warming put enormous burden on the ecosystems and economic health of coastal communities. Optimal policies to lessen these negative impacts require an estimation of their costs and benefits. The aim of this paper is to calculate the costs of beach erosion and flood risk through the valuation of property prices in Hilton Head Island, a barrier island located in South Carolina, USA. Spatial lag hedonic pricing was introduced in order to account for spatial autocorrelation in the dataset. The results show that properties that are located within the zone of high, or very high, flood risk experience a 15.6% reduction in value. The implicit price of being located close to an eroded beach is approximately 26% of the price of an oceanfront property. However, this negative impact on property value diminishes with distance from the shoreline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk and Hazard in the Coastal Ocean)
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Article
Ocean Circulation Drives the Variability of the Carbon System in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 126-148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010008 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 763
Abstract
The carbon system in the eastern tropical Atlantic remains poorly known. The variability and drivers of the carbon system are assessed using surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), alkalinity (TA) and fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) measured in the 12° N–12° S, [...] Read more.
The carbon system in the eastern tropical Atlantic remains poorly known. The variability and drivers of the carbon system are assessed using surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), alkalinity (TA) and fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) measured in the 12° N–12° S, 12° W–12° E region from 2005 to 2019. A relationship linking DIC to temperature, salinity and year has been determined, with salinity being the strongest predictor. The seasonal variations of DIC, ranging from 80 to 120 μμmol kg−1, are more important than the year-to-year variability that is less than 50 μμmol kg−1 over the 2010–2019 period. DIC and TA concentrations are lower in the northern part of the basin where surface waters are fresher and warmer. Carbon supply dominates over biological carbon uptake during the productive upwelling period from July to September. The lowest DIC and TA are located in the Congo plume. The influence of the Congo is still observed at the mooring at 6° S, 8° E as shown by large salinity and chlorophyll variations. Nevertheless, this site is a source of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Full article
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Article
Structure and Dynamics of the Ras al Hadd Oceanic Dipole in the Arabian Sea
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 105-125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010007 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 806
Abstract
The Ras al Hadd oceanic dipole is a recurrent association of a cyclone (to the northeast) and of an anticyclone (to the southwest), which forms in summer and breaks up at the end of autumn. It lies near the Ras al Hadd cape, [...] Read more.
The Ras al Hadd oceanic dipole is a recurrent association of a cyclone (to the northeast) and of an anticyclone (to the southwest), which forms in summer and breaks up at the end of autumn. It lies near the Ras al Hadd cape, southeast of the Arabian peninsula. Its size is on the order of 100 km. Along the axis of this dipole flows an intense jet, the Ras al Had jet. Using altimetric data and an eddy detection and tracking algorithm (AMEDA: Angular Momentum Eddy Detection and tracking Algorithm), we describe the life cycle of this oceanic dipole over a year (2014–2015). We also use the results of a numerical model (HYCOM, the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) simulation, and hydrological data from ARGO profilers, to characterize the vertical structure of the two eddies composing the dipole, and their variability over a 15 year period. We show that (1) before the dipole is formed, the two eddies that will compose it, come from different locations to join near Ras al Hadd, (2) the dipole remains near Ras al Hadd during summer and fall while the wind stress (due to the summer monsoon wind) intensifies the cyclone, (3) both the anticyclone and the cyclone reach the depth of the Persian Gulf Water outflow, and (4) their horizontal radial velocity profile is often close to Gaussian but it can vary as the dipole interacts with neighboring eddies. As a conclusion, further work with a process model is recommended to quantify the interaction of this dipole with surrounding eddies and with the atmosphere. Full article
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Article
Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria in Two Marine Mammal Species, Harbor Seals and Harbor Porpoises, Living in an Urban Marine Ecosystem, the Salish Sea, Washington State, USA
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 86-104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010006 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
The pervasive use of antibiotics in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture can result in a significant increase in the spread and environmental persistence of antibiotic resistance in marine ecosystems. This study describes the presence and distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in Salish Sea [...] Read more.
The pervasive use of antibiotics in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture can result in a significant increase in the spread and environmental persistence of antibiotic resistance in marine ecosystems. This study describes the presence and distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in Salish Sea harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and evaluates species, age class, and geographic differences in resistance patterns. Isolates from 95 dead-stranded animals (74 seals/21 porpoises) were tested for resistance to a suite of 15 antibiotics. Of the 95 sampled, 85 (89%) (67 seals/18 porpoises) successfully yielded 144 isolates, with 37% resistant to at least one antibiotic and 26% multi-drug resistant (24% and 39% of seal and porpoise isolates, respectively). Overall, and by study region, porpoises were significantly more likely to harbor resistant organisms compared to seals. Significant differences between age classes were noted for the antibiotics amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefovecin. Overall isolate resistance was significantly greater in porpoises than seals for several individual antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices greater than 0.2 were observed in 55% of multi-drug resistant isolates, suggesting seal and porpoise exposure to anthropogenic pollution. The relatively high and disparate prevalence of antibiotic resistance in these common, but ecologically dissimilar, marine mammals reflects a potentially large environmental pool of antibiotic resistant organisms in the Salish Sea or inherently different resistance gene patterns between the two species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Mammals in a Changing World)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Oceans in 2020
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 84-85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010005 - 24 Jan 2021
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Oceans maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Influence of the Seasonal Thermocline on the Vertical Distribution of Larval Fish Assemblages Associated with Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Spawning Grounds
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 64-83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010004 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Temperature is often an important variable influencing the vertical position of fish larvae in the water column. The same species may show different vertical distributions in areas with a strong near-surface seasonal thermocline compared to isothermal near-surface regions. In areas with a strong [...] Read more.
Temperature is often an important variable influencing the vertical position of fish larvae in the water column. The same species may show different vertical distributions in areas with a strong near-surface seasonal thermocline compared to isothermal near-surface regions. In areas with a strong surface thermocline, tuna larvae show a significant preference for the near-surface warmer layers. Little is known regarding larval tuna vertical distribution in isothermal waters and on the vertical distribution of the associated larval fish assemblages. We conducted vertical stratified sampling using the same methodology and fishing device (MOCNESS) in the two major spawning areas of Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT): western Mediterranean Sea (MED), characterized by a surface thermocline, and the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) which lacks thermal stratification. Tuna larvae occupied the upper 30 m in both areas, but the average larval depth distribution was consistently deeper in the GOM. In the MED, vertical distribution of larval fish assemblages was explained by temperature, and species such as BFT, Thunnus alalunga, and Ceratoscopelus maderensis, among others, coexist above the thermocline and are separated from species such as Cyclothone braueri and Hygophum spp. (found below the thermocline). In the GOM, the environmental correlates of the vertical distribution of the larvae were salinity and fluorescence. Mesopelagic taxa such as Ceratoscopelus spp. and Cyclothone spp., among others, had a shallower average distribution than Lampanyctus spp., Hygophum spp., and Myctophum spp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Larval Biology and Ecology)
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Review
Harbour Seals: Population Structure, Status, and Threats in a Rapidly Changing Environment
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 41-63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010003 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
The harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is the world’s most widely distributed pinniped species ranging from temperate to Arctic regions (30–78.5° N in the Atlantic, 28–61.2° N in the Pacific), but no detailed overview of the species status exists. The aims of [...] Read more.
The harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is the world’s most widely distributed pinniped species ranging from temperate to Arctic regions (30–78.5° N in the Atlantic, 28–61.2° N in the Pacific), but no detailed overview of the species status exists. The aims of this review are to (i) provide current information on the genetic structure, population status, and threats; (ii) review potential consequences of a changing climate; and (iii) identify knowledge gaps to guide future research and monitoring. Although the species is globally abundant, wide differences exist across the species’ broad range. As climate warms, populations at the edges of the species’ distributional range are likely to be more affected. The primary climate-related drivers include: (i) changes in weather patterns, which can affect thermoregulation; (ii) decrease in availability of haul-out substrates; (iii) large-scale changes in prey availability and inter-specific competition; (iv) shifts in the range of pathogens; (v) increase in temperature favouring the biotransformation of contaminants; and (vi) increased exposure to pollutant from increased freshwater run-off. Multiple anthropogenic stressors may collectively impact some populations. Coordinated monitoring efforts across and within regions is needed. This would allow for a spatially explicit management approach including population-specific responses to known stressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Mammals in a Changing World)
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Article
Effects of Experimental Ocean Acidification on the Larval Morphology and Metabolism of a Temperate Sparid, Chrysoblephus laticeps
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 26-40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010002 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
Ocean acidification is predicted to have widespread impacts on marine species. The early life stages of fishes, being particularly sensitive to environmental deviations, represent a critical bottleneck to recruitment. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification (∆pH = −0.4) on the oxygen consumption [...] Read more.
Ocean acidification is predicted to have widespread impacts on marine species. The early life stages of fishes, being particularly sensitive to environmental deviations, represent a critical bottleneck to recruitment. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification (∆pH = −0.4) on the oxygen consumption and morphometry during the early ontogeny of a commercially important seabream, Chrysoblephus laticeps, up until flexion. Hatchlings appeared to be tolerant to hypercapnic conditions, exhibiting no difference in oxygen consumption or morphometry between treatments, although the yolk reserves were marginally reduced in the low-pH treatment. The preflexion stages appeared to undergo metabolic depression, exhibiting lower metabolic rates along with lower growth metrics in hypercapnic conditions. However, although the sample sizes were low, the flexion-stage larvae exhibited greater rates of metabolic and growth metric increases in hypercapnic conditions. This study shows that the effects of OA may be stage specific during early ontogeny and potentially related to the development of crucial organs, such as the gills. Future studies investigating the effects of climate change on fish larvae should endeavour to include multiple developmental stages in order to make more accurate predictions on recruitment dynamics for the coming decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Larval Biology and Ecology)
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Review
Perspectives on Larval Behaviour in Biophysical Modelling of Larval Dispersal in Marine, Demersal Fishes
Oceans 2021, 2(1), 1-25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Biophysical dispersal models for marine fish larvae are widely used by marine ecologists and managers of fisheries and marine protected areas to predict movement of larval fishes during their pelagic larval duration (PLD). Over the past 25 years, it has become obvious that [...] Read more.
Biophysical dispersal models for marine fish larvae are widely used by marine ecologists and managers of fisheries and marine protected areas to predict movement of larval fishes during their pelagic larval duration (PLD). Over the past 25 years, it has become obvious that behaviour—primarily vertical positioning, horizontal swimming and orientation—of larvae during their PLD can strongly influence dispersal outcomes. Yet, most published models do not include even one of these behaviours, and only a tiny fraction include all three. Furthermore, there is no clarity on how behaviours should be incorporated into models, nor on how to obtain the quantitative, empirical data needed to parameterize models. The PLD is a period of morphological, physiological and behavioural change, which presents challenges for modelling. The present paper aims to encourage the inclusion of larval behaviour in biophysical dispersal models for larvae of marine demersal fishes by providing practical suggestions, advice and insights about obtaining and incorporating behaviour of larval fishes into such models based on experience. Key issues are features of different behavioural metrics, incorporation of ontogenetic, temporal, spatial and among-individual variation, and model validation. Research on behaviour of larvae of study species should be part of any modelling effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Larval Biology and Ecology)
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