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Appl. Mech., Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): To fill the gaps and deficiencies in the existing literature, an extended partially insulated crack model is proposed to consider the problem of a single crack in an orthotropic solid subjected to combined arbitrary symmetrical thermal/mechanical loads. With FTT application, thermoelastic partial differential equations (PDE) are transformed into singular integral equations, on which the thermoelastic fields with principle of superposition are based. The obtained results reveal that dimensionless thermal conductivity and the coefficient have influences on the heat flux per thickness normal to the crack surface and fracture parameters for cracked solid subjected to combined\constant thermomechanical loading. View this paper.
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Article
Determining the Compression-Equivalent Deformation of SBR-Based Rubber Material Measured in Tensile Mode Using the Finite Element Method
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 195-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech2010012 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 813
Abstract
A timesaving characterization approach of rubber materials in compression using the finite element method (FEM) is presented. Rubber materials based on styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) are subjected to tensile and compression tests. Using the neo–Hooke, Mooney–Rivlin and Yeoh material models, a compression-equivalent deformation [...] Read more.
A timesaving characterization approach of rubber materials in compression using the finite element method (FEM) is presented. Rubber materials based on styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) are subjected to tensile and compression tests. Using the neo–Hooke, Mooney–Rivlin and Yeoh material models, a compression-equivalent deformation of the SBR samples is derived from the tensile testing. The simulated state is then compared with the experimental results obtained from compression measurement. The deviation in the strain energy density between the measurements and the simulations depends on the quality of the fitting. Full article
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Article
A Monotonic Smeared Truss Model to Predict the Envelope Shear Stress—Shear Strain Curve for Reinforced Concrete Panel Elements under Cyclic Shear
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 174-194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010011 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
In previous studies, a smeared truss model based on a refinement of the rotating-angle softened truss model (RA-STM) was proposed to predict the full response of structural concrete panel elements under in-plane monotonic loading. This model, called the “efficient RA-STM procedure”, was validated [...] Read more.
In previous studies, a smeared truss model based on a refinement of the rotating-angle softened truss model (RA-STM) was proposed to predict the full response of structural concrete panel elements under in-plane monotonic loading. This model, called the “efficient RA-STM procedure”, was validated against the experimental results of reinforced and prestressed concrete panels, steel fiber concrete panels, and reinforced concrete panels externally strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymers. The model incorporates equilibrium and compatibility equations, as well as appropriate smeared constitutive laws of the materials. Besides, it incorporates an efficient algorithm for the calculation procedure to compute the solution points without using the classical trial-and-error technique, providing high numerical efficiency and stability. In this study, the efficient RA-STM procedure is adapted and checked against some experimental data related to reinforced concrete (RC) panels tested under in-plane cyclic shear until failure and found in the literature. Being a monotonic model, the predictions from the model are compared with the experimental envelopes of the hysteretic shear stress–shear strain loops. It is shown that the predictions for the shape (at least until the peak load is reached) and for key shear stresses (namely, cracking, yielding, and maximum shear stresses) of the envelope shear stress–shear strain curves are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones. From the obtained results, the efficient RA-STM procedure can be considered as a reliable model to predict some important features of the response of RC panels under cyclic shear, at least for a precheck analysis or predesign. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics Applied in Construction Engineering)
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Article
Evaluating Degradation Coefficients from Existing System Models
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 159-173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010010 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
A generalization of the Degradation-Entropy Generation (DEG) theorem to multi-disciplinary multi-physics system-process analysis via a combination with pre-existing system models is presented in this article. Existing models and the DEG methodology are reviewed, and a method for evaluating degradation coefficients Bi is [...] Read more.
A generalization of the Degradation-Entropy Generation (DEG) theorem to multi-disciplinary multi-physics system-process analysis via a combination with pre-existing system models is presented in this article. Existing models and the DEG methodology are reviewed, and a method for evaluating degradation coefficients Bi is proposed. These coefficients characterize the system’s transformation based on active dissipative mechanisms, including temperature effects. The consistency of entropy generation in characterizing degradation is then inherited by these often-empirical system models, thereby rendering them more robust and applicable to similar systems without the need for numerous tests and measurements for model corrections. The approach applies to all systems and can quickly analyze and predict a system’s performance and degradation, even in the absence of experimental data (using known properties and material constants). Demonstrated applications herein include mechanically loaded systems (frictional wear, grease shearing, fatigue loading), electrochemical energy systems, thermal processes, and others. Full article
Article
CFD Simulations on the Rotor Dynamics of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Activated from Stationary
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 147-158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010009 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 786
Abstract
The adaptive dynamic mesh, user-defined functions, and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) solver provided in ANSYS FLUENT 14 are engaged to simulate the activating processes of the rotor of the Grumman WS33 wind system. The rotor is activated from stationary to steady operation [...] Read more.
The adaptive dynamic mesh, user-defined functions, and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) solver provided in ANSYS FLUENT 14 are engaged to simulate the activating processes of the rotor of the Grumman WS33 wind system. The rotor is activated from stationary to steady operation driven by a steady or periodic wind flow and its kinematic properties and power generation during the activating processes. The angular velocity and angular acceleration are calculated directly by the post-processed real-time 6DOF solver without presuming a known rotating speed to the computational grid frame. The maximum angular velocity of the rotor is approximately proportional to the driving wind speed, and its maximal angular acceleration is also closely proportional to the square of the driving wind speed. The evolution curves of the normalized rotor angular velocities and accelerations are almost identical due to the self-similarity properties of the rotor angular velocities and accelerations. The angular velocity of the rotor will reach its steady value. One can use these steady angular velocities to predict the mechanical power generations of the rotor. The momentum analysis theory and the blade element momentum method are applied to predicted power generations and reveal good agreements with experimental data in the low wind speed range. Full article
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Article
Fracture Analysis for a Crack in Orthotropic Material Subjected to Combined 2i-Order Symmetrical Thermal Flux and 2j-Order Symmetrical Mechanical Loading
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 127-146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010008 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
The problems of crack formation in orthotropic materials under 2i order polynomial function heat flow and 2j order polynomial function mechanical loading are considered. An extended local insulation crack model is proposed, and fracture analysis is carried out for the above [...] Read more.
The problems of crack formation in orthotropic materials under 2i order polynomial function heat flow and 2j order polynomial function mechanical loading are considered. An extended local insulation crack model is proposed, and fracture analysis is carried out for the above problems. Utilizing Fourier transform technique (FTT) and principle of superposition, the jumps of temperature, elastic displacements on the crack, and so on are obtained. The advantage of this analysis is that the explicit closed form solutions of main parameters in classical fracture mechanics, i.e., the stress intensity factor, the energy release rate, and the energy density have been presented. A simple example is used to demonstrate the method proposed in this paper. The analysis results show that the non-dimensional thermal conductivity and the combined ratio of the heat flux per thickness perpendicular to the crack surface to the mechanical load have a great influence on the calculation of fracture parameters. Only when they meet certain conditions can the correct fracture parameter calculation results be obtained. Full article
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Article
Mechanical Properties of Selected Epoxy Adhesive and Adhesive Joints of Steel Sheets
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 108-126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010007 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 787
Abstract
The article presents the issues of the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesives and the adhesive joints strength of steel sheets which were made using the epoxy adhesives. The aim of the paper is to study the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesive of different [...] Read more.
The article presents the issues of the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesives and the adhesive joints strength of steel sheets which were made using the epoxy adhesives. The aim of the paper is to study the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesive of different epoxy resin/curing agent ratios (within and above the recommended stoichiometric ratio) and their effect on mechanical properties of adhesive joints of steel sheets. In experimental tests three types of epoxy adhesives, containing a low molecular weight epoxy resin based on bisphenol A and polyamide curing agent, were used. A single-lap adhesive joint type of stainless-steel sheets was also applied. Two types of strength test were used: the compressive strength tests (DIN EN 196-1) for epoxy adhesive samples and the shear strength tests (DIN EN 1465) for adhesive joints. Both the analysis of the strength results of the samples of epoxy adhesive and adhesive joints as well as the failure analysis was carried out. On the basis of the results of strength tests it can be stated that the greatest deformation occurred for the samples of epoxy adhesive containing the modified epoxy resin (epoxy number—0.40) and the polyamide curing agent, and the smallest for the samples of epoxy adhesive containing the basic epoxy resin (epoxy number—0.49–0.52) and the polyamide curing agent. The epoxy adhesives with a smaller amount of curing agent were characterized by higher strength. This applies to all analyzed epoxy resins. The same dependences were obtained for the strength of adhesive joints of steel sheets made of the analyzed epoxy adhesive. Full article
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Article
Conformal Wireframe Nets for Trimmed Symmetric Unit Cells in Functionally Graded Lattice Materials
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 81-107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010006 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
Tessellating a periodic unit cell of lattice material to fill a design space in complex geometries has many challenges arising from their computer-aided design (CAD) modeling intricacy. A solution to this difficulty is the use of trimmed micro-truss lattice structures with a conformal [...] Read more.
Tessellating a periodic unit cell of lattice material to fill a design space in complex geometries has many challenges arising from their computer-aided design (CAD) modeling intricacy. A solution to this difficulty is the use of trimmed micro-truss lattice structures with a conformal net. This paper presents a novel algorithm for constructing conformal lattice net as wireframe of one-dimensional line segments suitable for Bravais cubic symmetric truss-based topologies. The novel algorithm is an excellent candidate when dealing with lattice structures using cubic, body-centered cubic (BCC), face-centered cubic (FCC), and/or diamond unit cell configurations. The wireframe structure is easily transferred into one-dimensional beam elements for microscale optimizations to obtain a functionally graded lattice material. It is shown that introduction of the lattice net resulted in a significant reduction in the mass of the optimized design. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Equilibrium Equations in Unified Mechanics Theory
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 63-80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010005 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Traditionally dynamic analysis is done using Newton’s universal laws of the equation of motion. According to the laws of Newtonian mechanics, the x, y, z, space-time coordinate system does not include a term for energy loss, an empirical damping term “C” is used [...] Read more.
Traditionally dynamic analysis is done using Newton’s universal laws of the equation of motion. According to the laws of Newtonian mechanics, the x, y, z, space-time coordinate system does not include a term for energy loss, an empirical damping term “C” is used in the dynamic equilibrium equation. Energy loss in any system is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Unified Mechanics Theory (UMT) unifies the universal laws of motion of Newton and the laws of thermodynamics at ab-initio level. As a result, the energy loss [entropy generation] is automatically included in the laws of the Unified Mechanics Theory (UMT). Using unified mechanics theory, the dynamic equilibrium equation is derived and presented. One-dimensional free vibration analysis with frictional dissipation is used to compare the results of the proposed model with that of a Newtonian mechanics equation. For the proposed entropy generation equation in the system, the trend of predictions is comparable with the reported experimental results and Newtonian mechanics-based predictions. Full article
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Review
Ship Handling in Unprotected Waters: A Review of New Technologies in Escort Tugs to Improve Safety
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 46-62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010004 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 757
Abstract
It is a well-known fact that the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster caused the escort towing of laden tankers in many coastal areas of the world to become compulsory. In order to implement a new type of escort towing, specially designed to be employed [...] Read more.
It is a well-known fact that the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster caused the escort towing of laden tankers in many coastal areas of the world to become compulsory. In order to implement a new type of escort towing, specially designed to be employed in very adverse weather conditions, considerable changes in the hull form of escort tugs had to be made to improve their stability and performance. Since traditional winch and ropes technologies were only effective in calm waters, tugs had to be fitted with new devices. These improvements allowed the remodeled tugs to counterbalance the strong forces generated by the maneuvers in open waters. The aim of this paper is to perform a comprehensive literature review of the new high-performance automatic dynamic winches. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of the best available technologies regarding towline, essential to properly exploit the new winches, will be carried out. Through this review, the way in which the escort towing industry has faced this technological challenge is shown. Full article
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Review
Hypervelocity Impacts on Satellite Sandwich Structures—A Review of Experimental Findings and Predictive Models
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 25-45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010003 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Sandwich panels are widely used in the design of unmanned satellites and, in addition to having a structural function, can often serve as shielding, protecting the satellites’ equipment from hypervelocity impacts (HVI) of orbital debris and micrometeoroids. This paper provides a comprehensive review [...] Read more.
Sandwich panels are widely used in the design of unmanned satellites and, in addition to having a structural function, can often serve as shielding, protecting the satellites’ equipment from hypervelocity impacts (HVI) of orbital debris and micrometeoroids. This paper provides a comprehensive review of experimental studies in the field of HVI on sandwich panels with honeycomb- and open-cell foam cores, as well as an examination of available predictive models for the assessment of the panels’ ballistic limits. The emphasis of the review is placed on: (i) identifying gaps in the existing experimental database and the appropriate directions for its further expansion; and (ii) understanding the limitations of the available predictive models and the potential for their improvement. Full article
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Communication
Selective Transfer of Si Thin-Film Microchips by SiO2 Terraces on Host Chips for Fluidic Self-Assembly
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 16-24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010002 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Fluidic self-assembly is a versatile on-chip integration method. In this scheme, a large number of semiconductor microchips are spontaneously deposited onto a host chip. The host chip typically comprises a Si substrate with an array of pockets at the designated microchip placement sites. [...] Read more.
Fluidic self-assembly is a versatile on-chip integration method. In this scheme, a large number of semiconductor microchips are spontaneously deposited onto a host chip. The host chip typically comprises a Si substrate with an array of pockets at the designated microchip placement sites. In this study, we installed an SiO2 layer on the terrace region between the pockets of the host chip, to reduce the attraction with the Si microchips. By the SiO2-topped terrace scheme, we demonstrated a significant enhancement in the deposition selectivity of the Si microchips to the pocket sites, relative to the case of the conventional Si-only host chip. We theoretically explained the deposition selectivity enhancement in terms of the van der Waals interaction. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis implicated a potential applicability of the commonly used interlayer dielectrics, such as HfO2, silsesquioxanes, and allyl ethers, directly as the terrace component. Full article
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Article
Experimental Characterization of Low-Speed Passive Discharge Losses of a Flywheel Energy Storage System
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 1-15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applmech2010001 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Flywheel energy storage has a wide range of applications in energy grids and transportation. The adoption of high-performance components has made this technology a viable alternative for substituting or complementing other storage devices. Flywheel energy storage systems are subject to passive discharge attributed [...] Read more.
Flywheel energy storage has a wide range of applications in energy grids and transportation. The adoption of high-performance components has made this technology a viable alternative for substituting or complementing other storage devices. Flywheel energy storage systems are subject to passive discharge attributed primarily to electrical machine losses, bearing rolling friction, and aerodynamic drag of the flywheel rotor. In the present study, measurements are presented for complete discharge experiments using a flywheel system featuring a vacuum enclosure. Best-fit equations were applied to the test data and compared to analytical models. Analysis of the best-fit equations indicates that they may serve as empirical models for approximating passive discharge under given conditions. Bearing losses, which varied linearly with velocity but were otherwise unaffected throughout the experiments, were larger than aerodynamic drag at low air pressures and low velocities. Aerodynamic drag became significant as velocity exceeded approximately 3400 rpm. The electrical machine was found to be the most significant source of passive discharge at all velocities and pressures. Based on these findings, it is recommended to maintain a low-pressure environment in the flywheel enclosure and to decouple the electrical machine from the rotor whenever possible to eliminate associated losses. Full article
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