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Optics, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2020) – 3 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Optical wireless communication (OWC) uses the visible and infrared spectrum bands of the electromagnetic spectrum to send data. When visible light is used, the technology is called visible light communication (VLC). In this paper, the potential use of VLC in an outdoor environment is studied by use of a VLC channel simulator. The main impactors of the outdoor environments are the presence of fog and/or smoke due to fire or pollutants. The effects of fog have been widely studied in research, and models have been developed to be used in infrared and visible spectrum bands. The novelty of this paper is the study, adaptation and use of smoke models developed for fire engineering in the VLC channel simulator. The communication link is assessed, and it seems that outdoor VLC has a promising future. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Outdoor Visible Light Communication Channel Modeling under Smoke Conditions and Analogy with Fog Conditions
Optics 2020, 1(3), 259-281; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/opt1030020 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Visible Light Communication (VLC) has gained popularity in research and business in the last decade. This technology aims to combine lighting and communication into a single device. For now, this technology has been thoroughly studied for an indoor environment, but it is sufficiently [...] Read more.
Visible Light Communication (VLC) has gained popularity in research and business in the last decade. This technology aims to combine lighting and communication into a single device. For now, this technology has been thoroughly studied for an indoor environment, but it is sufficiently mature nowadays to consider its outdoor-environment potentials. The key outdoor challenges are the weather variabilities and smoke particles in cities due to pollution or fires. The aim of this is the study and quantification of the weather and smoke particles’ impact on a short-range optical communication thanks to a simulator. This article’s novelty is the inclusion of the effects of smoke in a short-range outdoor VLC system channel model. This smoke model, which comes from the fire engineering field, states that smoke attenuation is independent of the wavelength, starting from high visibility to 5 m. The visibility represents the distance up to which an object can be distinguished against the background. The effects of fog and smoke are studied in the case of two outdoor VLC scenarios. Smoke and fog models have analogous equations to express the optical attenuation they induce, using the visibility concept. Taking into account the actual light-emitting diode (LED) lamp radiation pattern, the simulator computes the power at the receiver side and the channel attenuation coefficients for a given fog or/and smoke outdoor setting. The main result drawn in this paper is that the channel attenuation levels due to fog and smoke are both in the same order of magnitude, starting from the visibility of about 1 km. The attenuation induced by fog is higher under this threshold of 1 km. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Recent Development of Resonance-Based Optical Sensors and Biosensors
Optics 2020, 1(3), 255-258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/opt1030019 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 451
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development of Resonance-Based Optical Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle
Explanation of Photon Navigation in the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Optics 2020, 1(3), 243-254; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/opt1030018 - 28 Sep 2020
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Photons in interferometers manifest the functional ability to simultaneously navigate both paths through the device, but eventually appear at only one outlet. How this relates to the physical behaviour of the particle is still ambiguous, even though mathematical representation of the problem is [...] Read more.
Photons in interferometers manifest the functional ability to simultaneously navigate both paths through the device, but eventually appear at only one outlet. How this relates to the physical behaviour of the particle is still ambiguous, even though mathematical representation of the problem is adequate. This paper applies a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution, in the form of the Cordus theory, to explain photon path dilemmas in the Mach–Zehnder (MZ) interferometer. The findings suggest that the partial mirrors direct the two reactive ends of the Cordus photon structures to different legs of the apparatus, depending on the energisation state of the photon. Explanations are provided for a single photon in the interferometer in the default, open-path, and sample modes. The apparent intelligence in the system is not because the photon knows which path to take, but rather because the MZ interferometer is a finely-tuned photon-sorting device that auto-corrects for randomness in the frequency phase to direct the photon to a specific detector. The principles also explain other tunnelling phenomena involving barriers. Thus, navigation dilemmas in the MZ interferometer may be explained in terms of physical realism after all. Full article
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