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Endocrines, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2020) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): MEN1 mutation predisposes patients to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a genetic syndrome associated with the predominant co-occurrence of endocrine tumors. Intriguingly, recent evidence has suggested that MEN1 could also be involved in the development of breast and prostate cancers, two major hormone-related cancers. In this review, we present the currently available data obtained from mouse models and patients, and molecular studies carried out in endocrine and hormone-related cell lines, including, in particular, the physical and functional interactions between the menin protein, encoded by the MEN1 gene, and estrogen receptor α and androgen receptor. The data highlight a complex and multifaceted role of MEN1 in these two types of hormone-dependent cancers. View this paper
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Open AccessReview
Steroid-Induced Iatrogenic Adrenal Insufficiency in Children: A Literature Review
Endocrines 2020, 1(2), 125-137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines1020012 - 09 Dec 2020
Viewed by 675
Abstract
The present review focuses on steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency (SIAI) in children and discusses the latest findings by surveying recent studies. SIAI is a condition involving adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol suppression due to high doses or prolonged administration of glucocorticoids. While its chronic [...] Read more.
The present review focuses on steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency (SIAI) in children and discusses the latest findings by surveying recent studies. SIAI is a condition involving adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol suppression due to high doses or prolonged administration of glucocorticoids. While its chronic symptoms, such as fatigue and loss of appetite, are nonspecific, exposure to physical stressors, such as infection and surgery, increases the risk of adrenal crisis development accompanied by hypoglycemia, hypotension, or shock. The low-dose ACTH stimulation test is generally used for diagnosis, and the early morning serum cortisol level has also been shown to be useful in screening for the condition. Medical management includes gradually reducing the amount of steroid treatment, continuing administration of hydrocortisone corresponding to the physiological range, and increasing the dosage when physical stressors are present. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Testosterone Responses to Intensive, Prolonged Endurance Exercise in Women
Endocrines 2020, 1(2), 119-124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines1020011 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Objective: To examine the response of testosterone in women to an intensive, prolonged endurance exercise bout that mimicked a competitive event. Methods: Ten healthy eumenorrheic women ran to exhaustion at ~100% of their ventilatory threshold in their follicular menstrual cycle phase. Testosterone measures [...] Read more.
Objective: To examine the response of testosterone in women to an intensive, prolonged endurance exercise bout that mimicked a competitive event. Methods: Ten healthy eumenorrheic women ran to exhaustion at ~100% of their ventilatory threshold in their follicular menstrual cycle phase. Testosterone measures were assessed pre-exercise, immediately, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 24 h post-exercise. Results: At exhaustion (75.1 ± 7.0 min), total (56%), free (36%), and bioavailable testosterone (50%) were increased from pre-exercise values (p < 0.05). At 24 h post-exercise, these measures were decreased from pre-exercise values (−21%, −31%, −18%, respectively; p < 0.05). Effect sizes for these changes ranged from medium to large in magnitude. Conclusion: Testosterone was elevated in the early recovery period following exhaustive endurance exercise but was reduced by 24 h afterward. These outcomes are comparable to responses seen in men when sex-based concentration differences are considered. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Malignancy Analyses of Thyroid Nodules in Patients Subjected to Surgery with Cytological- and Ultrasound-Based Risk Stratification Systems
Endocrines 2020, 1(2), 102-118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines1020010 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 718
Abstract
The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the gold standard for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer. However, up to 30% of FNA examinations yield nondiagnostic or indeterminate results and this complicates patient management. Clinical features and ultrasound (US) patterns, including US risk [...] Read more.
The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the gold standard for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer. However, up to 30% of FNA examinations yield nondiagnostic or indeterminate results and this complicates patient management. Clinical features and ultrasound (US) patterns, including US risk stratification systems, could be useful in the preoperative diagnostic workup and prediction of malignancy, but the evidences are not univocal. Methods: 400 consecutive patients subjected to thyroid surgery were retrospectively enrolled at our institution in Calabria, Southern Italy. Preoperative US and FNA cytological descriptions, formulated according to the “Italian consensus for reporting thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology” (ICCRTC) classification and three US risk stratification systems (those developed by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AACE/ACE/AME), American Thyroid Association (ATA), and American College of Radiology (ACR-TIRADS)), were collected, along with histological results. Results: 147 thyroid cancer cases, in large majority papillary carcinomas, were detected on final histological examination. Almost two-thirds of patients subjected to thyroid surgery for either benign or malignant lesions were female. Patient’s age ≤20 years and between 21–30 years were clinical features associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer in logistic regression analyses. US features associated with thyroid cancer included irregular margins, solid composition, microcalcifications, and marked hypoechogenicity. The AACE/ACE/AME, ATA, and ACR-TIRADS risk categories, corresponding to specific US patterns, were strong predictors of malignancy in both genders, but not in nodules with indeterminate cytology. A measured difference between the longitudinal (L) and the anteroposterior (AP) diameter >5 mm, a proxy for a parallel-oriented oval shape of a nodule, emerged as a robust protective factor against thyroid cancer (OR 0.288 (95%CI 0.817–0.443); p < 0.001), regardless of cytological risk. Conclusions: Some, but not all, well-established predictors of TC have been confirmed in this study. Controversy surrounds the diagnostic performance of US risk stratification systems for the detection of thyroid cancer in the subgroup of nodules with indeterminate cytology, suggesting their use only to set the thresholds for FNA. A measured difference between L and AP diameters >5 mm may represent an additional and practical tool for ruling out malignancy in thyroid nodules, with the potential to reduce unnecessary surgical procedures. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
PDE5 Inhibitors in Type 2 Diabetes Cardiovascular Complications
Endocrines 2020, 1(2), 90-101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines1020009 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Pharmacological inhibition of Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) proved its efficacy treating several pathological conditions, such as erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Nowadays, its benefits on cardiovascular diseases are well documented, particularly in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-related cardiovascular complications. In this [...] Read more.
Pharmacological inhibition of Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) proved its efficacy treating several pathological conditions, such as erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Nowadays, its benefits on cardiovascular diseases are well documented, particularly in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-related cardiovascular complications. In this context, treatment of T2DM with PDE5 inhibitors, such as sildenafil, tadalafil or vardenafil ameliorates endothelial dysfunction both in patients and animal models through an augmented flow mediated dilation rate and an up-regulation of endothelial markers; it also reduces the inflammatory state by down-regulating inflammatory cytokines expression and improves diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemia-reperfusion injury mainly through the activation of NO-cGMP-PKG pathway. The present review summarizes the state of art on PDE5 inhibition in the treatment of cardiovascular complications in T2DM. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
History of Radiation to the Neck Increases the Risk of Denovo Thyroid Dysfunction after Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Endocrines 2020, 1(2), 82-89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines1020008 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Thyroid dysfunction is a common endocrine side effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). We designed a retrospective study, including patients who received ICI for any cancer at our institution. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 levels, and time to development of thyroid dysfunction were [...] Read more.
Thyroid dysfunction is a common endocrine side effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). We designed a retrospective study, including patients who received ICI for any cancer at our institution. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 levels, and time to development of thyroid dysfunction were measured, and medication used to treat thyroid dysfunction were identified. We reviewed the charts of 104 patients with complete records obtained from our tumor registry. A total of 91 patients were included in the analysis, after excluding 13 patients with a pre-existing thyroid disorder. Twenty-eight (30.77%) patients developed thyroid dysfunction after starting ICI. Race (p-0.048), age (p-0.014), history of radiation therapy (RT) to the neck (p-0.004), history of RT to the chest (p-0.012), and history of venous thrombosis (p-0.004) were significantly associated with thyroid dysfunction on univariate analysis. For multivariate analysis, the history of RT to the neck, adjusted for age, race, and sex, was significantly associated with thyroid dysfunction (adjusted OR-9.64, 95%CI: 1.88, 49.36, p-0.007). In patients receiving ICI for any type of cancer, the previous history of RT to the neck was significantly associated with the development of thyroid dysfunction after starting ICI. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Involvement of the MEN1 Gene in Hormone-Related Cancers: Clues from Molecular Studies, Mouse Models, and Patient Investigations
Endocrines 2020, 1(2), 58-81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines1020007 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 882
Abstract
MEN1 mutation predisposes patients to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a genetic syndrome associated with the predominant co-occurrence of endocrine tumors. Intriguingly, recent evidence has suggested that MEN1 could also be involved in the development of breast and prostate cancers, two major [...] Read more.
MEN1 mutation predisposes patients to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a genetic syndrome associated with the predominant co-occurrence of endocrine tumors. Intriguingly, recent evidence has suggested that MEN1 could also be involved in the development of breast and prostate cancers, two major hormone-related cancers. The first clues as to its possible role arose from the identification of the physical and functional interactions between the menin protein, encoded by MEN1, and estrogen receptor α and androgen receptor. In parallel, our team observed that aged heterozygous Men1 mutant mice developed cancerous lesions in mammary glands of female and in the prostate of male mutant mice at low frequencies, in addition to endocrine tumors. Finally, observations made both in MEN1 patients and in sporadic breast and prostate cancers further confirmed the role played by menin in these two cancers. In this review, we present the currently available data concerning the complex and multifaceted involvement of MEN1 in these two types of hormone-dependent cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormones and Growth Factors in Cancer)
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