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Endocrine Disorders in Autoimmune Rheumatological Diseases: A Focus on Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases and on the Effects of Chronic Glucocorticoid Treatment

1
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Corso Dogliotti 14, 10126 Turin, Italy
2
Department of Biological and Clinical Science, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Brunetti
Received: 22 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
Autoimmune rheumatological diseases’ incidence and prevalence have risen over the last decades and they are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Thyroid autoimmune diseases share with them an imbalance in the immune system that lead to a pro-inflammatory environment. Usually this is the result of a multi-factorial process. In fact, it includes not only a possible genetic predisposition, but also environmental causes like microbiota dysbiosis, diet rich in processed foods, exposure to toxicants and infections. However, many aspects are currently under study. This paper aims to examine the factors that participate in the developing of rheumatological and thyroid autoimmune diseases. Moreover, as glucocorticoids still represent a leading treatment for systemic autoimmune rheumatological diseases, our secondary aim is to summarize the main effects of glucocorticoids treatment focusing on iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome and glucocorticoids’ withdrawal syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: rheumatological diseases; thyroid diseases; corticosteroids; cushing’s syndrome; withdrawal syndrome rheumatological diseases; thyroid diseases; corticosteroids; cushing’s syndrome; withdrawal syndrome
MDPI and ACS Style

Egalini, F.; Parasiliti Caprino, M.; Gaggero, G.; Cappiello, V.; Giannelli, J.; Rossetto Giaccherino, R.; Pagano, L.; Giordano, R. Endocrine Disorders in Autoimmune Rheumatological Diseases: A Focus on Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases and on the Effects of Chronic Glucocorticoid Treatment. Endocrines 2021, 2, 171-184. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030018

AMA Style

Egalini F, Parasiliti Caprino M, Gaggero G, Cappiello V, Giannelli J, Rossetto Giaccherino R, Pagano L, Giordano R. Endocrine Disorders in Autoimmune Rheumatological Diseases: A Focus on Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases and on the Effects of Chronic Glucocorticoid Treatment. Endocrines. 2021; 2(3):171-184. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Egalini, Filippo, Mirko Parasiliti Caprino, Giulia Gaggero, Vincenzo Cappiello, Jacopo Giannelli, Ruth Rossetto Giaccherino, Loredana Pagano, and Roberta Giordano. 2021. "Endocrine Disorders in Autoimmune Rheumatological Diseases: A Focus on Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases and on the Effects of Chronic Glucocorticoid Treatment" Endocrines 2, no. 3: 171-184. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030018

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