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Review

Sex Differences in Renal Function: Participation of Gonadal Hormones and Prolactin

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Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara 44340, Mexico
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CONACyT-Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara 44340, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Genazzani
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 5 July 2021
Kidney pathophysiology is influenced by gender. Evidence suggests that kidney damage is more severe in males than in females and that sexual hormones contribute to this. Elevated prolactin concentration is common in renal impairment patients and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. However, PRL is involved in the osmoregulatory process and promotes endothelial proliferation, dilatation, and permeability in blood vessels. Several proteinases cleavage its structure, forming vasoinhibins. These fragments have antagonistic PRL effects on endothelium and might be associated with renal endothelial dysfunction, but its role in the kidneys has not been enough investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe the influence of sexual dimorphism and gonadal hormones on kidney damage, emphasizing the role of the hormone prolactin and its cleavage products, the vasoinhibins. View Full-Text
Keywords: kidney; renal physiology; gender; hormones; prolactin; vasoinhibins kidney; renal physiology; gender; hormones; prolactin; vasoinhibins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Franco-Acevedo, A.; Echavarria, R.; Melo, Z. Sex Differences in Renal Function: Participation of Gonadal Hormones and Prolactin. Endocrines 2021, 2, 185-202. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030019

AMA Style

Franco-Acevedo A, Echavarria R, Melo Z. Sex Differences in Renal Function: Participation of Gonadal Hormones and Prolactin. Endocrines. 2021; 2(3):185-202. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franco-Acevedo, Adriana, Raquel Echavarria, and Zesergio Melo. 2021. "Sex Differences in Renal Function: Participation of Gonadal Hormones and Prolactin" Endocrines 2, no. 3: 185-202. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030019

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