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Review

The Physiological Role of Irisin in the Regulation of Muscle Glucose Homeostasis

by 1,2, 3 and 1,2,*
1
Roger Williams Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
2
Department of Plastic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
3
Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Brunetti
Received: 14 June 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 27 July 2021 / Published: 13 August 2021
Irisin is a myokine that primarily targets adipose tissue, where it increases energy expenditure and contributes to the beneficial effects of exercise through the browning of white adipose tissue. As our knowledge has deepened in recent years, muscle has been found to be a major target organ for irisin as well. Several studies have attempted to characterize the role of irisin in muscle to improve glucose metabolism through mechanisms such as reducing insulin resistance. Although they are very intriguing reports, some contradictory results make it difficult to grasp the whole picture of the action of irisin on muscle. In this review, we attempted to organize the current knowledge of the role of irisin in muscle glucose metabolism. We discussed the direct effects of irisin on glucose metabolism in three types of muscle, that is, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and the myocardium. We also describe irisin’s effects on mitochondria and its interactions with other hormones. Furthermore, to consider the relationship between the irisin-induced improvement of glucose metabolism in muscle and systemic disorders of glucose metabolism, we reviewed the results from animal interventional studies and human clinical studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: irisin; myokine; glucose homeostasis; type 2 diabetes mellitus; metabolic disorders irisin; myokine; glucose homeostasis; type 2 diabetes mellitus; metabolic disorders
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yano, N.; Zhao, Y.T.; Zhao, T.C. The Physiological Role of Irisin in the Regulation of Muscle Glucose Homeostasis. Endocrines 2021, 2, 266-283. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030025

AMA Style

Yano N, Zhao YT, Zhao TC. The Physiological Role of Irisin in the Regulation of Muscle Glucose Homeostasis. Endocrines. 2021; 2(3):266-283. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yano, Naohiro, Yu T. Zhao, and Ting C. Zhao 2021. "The Physiological Role of Irisin in the Regulation of Muscle Glucose Homeostasis" Endocrines 2, no. 3: 266-283. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2030025

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