Previous Issue
Volume 2, September

Endocrines, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 5 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Metabolic Reprogramming in Thyroid Cancer: Role of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
by , and
Endocrines 2021, 2(4), 427-438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2040038 (registering DOI) - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 112
Abstract
Thyroid cancer (TC) represents the most common endocrine malignancy, with an increasing incidence all over the world. Papillary TC (PTC), a differentiated TC subtype, is the most common and, even though it has an excellent prognosis following radioiodine (RAI) ablation, it shows an [...] Read more.
Thyroid cancer (TC) represents the most common endocrine malignancy, with an increasing incidence all over the world. Papillary TC (PTC), a differentiated TC subtype, is the most common and, even though it has an excellent prognosis following radioiodine (RAI) ablation, it shows an aggressive behavior in 20–30% of cases, becoming RAI-resistant and/or metastatic. On the other side, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), the most undifferentiated TC, is a rare but devastating disease, indicating that progression of differentiated to undifferentiated forms of TC could be responsible for RAI-resistance and increased mortality. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in both tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Moreover, during tumor progression, cancer cells modify their metabolism to meet changed requirements for cellular proliferation. Through these metabolic changes, cancer cells may adopt cancer stem cell-like properties and express an EMT phenotype. EMT, in turn, can induce metabolic changes to which cancer cells become addicted. Here we review metabolic reprogramming in TC highlighting the role of EMT with the aim to explore a potential field to find out new therapeutic strategies for advanced-stage PTC. Accordingly, we discuss the identification of the metabolic enzymes and metabolites, critical to TC progression, which can be employed either as predicting biomarkers of tumor response to RAI therapy or possible targets in precision medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrine Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Role of Vitamin D in Cardiovascular Diseases
Endocrines 2021, 2(4), 417-426; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2040037 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Vitamin D represents a group of secosteroids involved in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxylcalciferol, exerts its biological mechanisms via the VDR (vitamin D receptor) which acts as a regulator of several target genes. Hypovitaminosis D is [...] Read more.
Vitamin D represents a group of secosteroids involved in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxylcalciferol, exerts its biological mechanisms via the VDR (vitamin D receptor) which acts as a regulator of several target genes. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with many diseases, which are not only limited to the metabolism of the skeleton, but growing evidence links the deficit of vitamin D to cardiovascular, metabolic, immune, and neoplastic diseases. In regard to the cardiovascular system, current evidence shows the presence of VDR in endothelial cells. Moreover, both in vitro and animal experimental models demonstrated that the deficit of vitamin D can promote endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis development. Vitamin D can interfere with vascular functions also by affecting the production of vasodilator mediators. VDR is also expressed in left ventricle cardiomyocytes, and hypovitaminosis D can relate to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) designed to prove the therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation have been inconclusive to date. The aim of this review is to highlight the main interactions between vitamin D metabolism and cardiovascular diseases; thus, focusing on pathogenic mechanisms and related clinical manifestations. Full article
Review
Neuroendocrine Changes during Menopausal Transition
Endocrines 2021, 2(4), 405-416; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2040036 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstrual cycles following the loss of ovarian follicular activity. Quality of life of postmenopausal woman is the result of a series of psychobiological transformations, that see in the reduction of sex hormones and steroids the etiopathogenetic determinant [...] Read more.
Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstrual cycles following the loss of ovarian follicular activity. Quality of life of postmenopausal woman is the result of a series of psychobiological transformations, that see in the reduction of sex hormones and steroids the etiopathogenetic determinant moment. Symptoms of menopause range from somatic side such as metabolic changes, increased cardiovascular disease, irregular vaginal bleeding, urogenital symptoms, vaginal dryness, osteoporosis and risk of bones fractures to changes of central nervous system as vasomotor symptoms, sleep disruption, mood changes, migraine, sexual dysfunctions. It is fundamental to know the mechanisms underlying changes in the central nervous system during menopause, related to hypoestrogenism, to be able to create appropriate target therapy for patients, improving their quality of life. In fact, the central nervous system is now one of the major targets of sex steroids that cannot be achieved disregard when dealing with the problem of choice of a particular type of MHT. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Copeptin and Stress
Endocrines 2021, 2(4), 384-404; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2040035 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 150
Abstract
Vasopressin (AVP) and copeptin are released in equimolar amounts from the same precursor. Due to its molecular stability and countless advantages as compared with AVP, copeptin perfectly mirrors AVP presence and has progressively emerged as a reliable marker of vasopressinergic activation in response [...] Read more.
Vasopressin (AVP) and copeptin are released in equimolar amounts from the same precursor. Due to its molecular stability and countless advantages as compared with AVP, copeptin perfectly mirrors AVP presence and has progressively emerged as a reliable marker of vasopressinergic activation in response to osmotic and hemodynamic stimuli in clinical practice. Moreover, evidence highlighting the prognostic potential of copeptin in several acute diseases, where the activation of the AVP system is primarily linked to stress, as well as in psychologically stressful conditions, has progressively emerged. Furthermore, organic stressors induce a rise in copeptin levels which, although non-specific, is unrelated to plasma osmolality but proportional to their magnitude: suggesting disease severity, copeptin proved to be a reliable prognostic biomarker in acute conditions, such as sepsis, early post-surgical period, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular or pulmonary diseases, and even in critical settings. Evidence on this topic will be briefly discussed in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroregulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity for Successful Aging: An Update for Nutritionists and Endocrinologists
Endocrines 2021, 2(4), 366-383; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/endocrines2040034 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The constant advancement in the medical field has allowed for the diagnosis and treatment of several health conditions. It has also contributed to increasing the average human lifespan, which is considered an outstanding achievement in history. Nevertheless, the impact of this in an [...] Read more.
The constant advancement in the medical field has allowed for the diagnosis and treatment of several health conditions. It has also contributed to increasing the average human lifespan, which is considered an outstanding achievement in history. Nevertheless, the impact of this in an ever-increasing aged population with chronic diseases and, most of the time, with limited and poor quality of life was not considered. Thus, it is imperative to establish strategies to age successfully. In order to do have a better understanding of this crucial issue, this review will analyze the endocrine changes in the elderly. It will present common conditions found in this population, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Additionally, we will explain aging-related metabolic and physical performance decline related to hormone changes and lifestyle modifications. We will propose the Mediterranean diet and some specific guidelines about physical activity as part of the plan to have an active and successful aging process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop