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Volume 2, March

Epidemiologia, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Stillbirth risk during an influenza pandemic is an important indicator of the direct effect of the influenza virus on the fetus and has implications on public health policy including vaccination of pregnant women. While our analysis of birth records from 1915 to 1925 for Maricopa County, Arizona, did not indicate a statistically significant impact of the 1918 influenza pandemic on stillbirth risk, we document substantial peaks in the stillbirth rate 9–10 months following the main pandemic waves. We also found a greater stillbirth risk associated with older maternal age. View this paper
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Article
Factors and Inequality of Underweight and Overweight among Women of Reproductive Age in Myanmar: Evidence from the Demographic Health Survey 2015–2016
Epidemiologia 2020, 1(1), 31-43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia1010006 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 673
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aims to identify the factors of underweight and overweight/obesity among reproductive age (15–49 years) women in Myanmar, and assess the level of inequity in the double burden of malnutrition. (2) Methods: The study used Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aims to identify the factors of underweight and overweight/obesity among reproductive age (15–49 years) women in Myanmar, and assess the level of inequity in the double burden of malnutrition. (2) Methods: The study used Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey 2015–2016 data. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to identify the factors affecting underweight and overweight/obesity; and concentration indices (CI) were estimated to assess socioeconomic inequalities. (3) Results: A total of 12,643 reproductive age women were included in the analysis. Higher risk of underweight was found in women aged 20–29 years, aged 30–39 years, and 40–49 years compared to women aged 15–19 years; women who were unemployed or had manual occupation relative to those in non-manual employment. Women aged 40–49 years (compared to those who were 15–29 years); had primary education, and secondary education (compared to those who had no education); being married, and widowed/divorced/separated (compared to being never married); belonging to the poor quintile, middle quintile, richer, richest quintile (compared to the poorest quintile); having residence in urban areas (compared to rural areas) and in Kachin, Taninthayi, Yangon province (than those who lived in Naypytiaw province) had a higher risk of being overweight/obese. Socioeconomic inequalities were detected, with overweight/obesity strongly concentrated (CI: 0.19) amongst the higher quintiles and underweight concentrated (CI: −0.060) amongst the poorest. (4) Conclusions: Equity oriented nutrition interventions with a focus on improving the socioeconomic status of poor households may benefit undernourished women, while richer households should be focused to curb the overweight/obesity problem. Full article
Article
Stillbirth Risk during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Arizona, USA
Epidemiologia 2020, 1(1), 23-30; https://doi.org/10.3390/epidemiologia1010005 - 11 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The 1918 influenza pandemic, the deadliest pandemic on record, affected approximately 1/3rd of the population worldwide. The impact of this pandemic on stillbirth risk has not been studied in depth. In this study, we assessed the stillbirth risk during the 1918 influenza pandemic [...] Read more.
The 1918 influenza pandemic, the deadliest pandemic on record, affected approximately 1/3rd of the population worldwide. The impact of this pandemic on stillbirth risk has not been studied in depth. In this study, we assessed the stillbirth risk during the 1918 influenza pandemic in Arizona, USA. We carried out a retrospective study using 21,334 birth records for Maricopa County, Arizona, for the period 1915–1925. We conducted logistic regression analyses to assess the effect of that pandemic on stillbirth risk. Though we did not find a statistically significant impact on stillbirth risk during the pandemic, there was a higher risk of stillbirth in July 1919 (42 stillbirths/1000 births), 9 months after the peak pandemic mortality, and a stillbirth risk of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.72) in women ≥35 years compared to the women aged <35 years. The risk of stillbirth was lowest if the mother’s age was approximately 26 years at the time of birth. We also report peaks in stillbirth risk 9–10 months after the peak pandemic mortality. Our findings add to our current understanding of the link between pandemic influenza and stillbirth risk. Full article
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Brief Report
Masks, Gloves, and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Rapid Assessment of Public Behaviors in the United States
Epidemiologia 2020, 1(1), 16-22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia1010004 - 05 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
The COVID-19 outbreak was declared a national emergency in the U.S. in March 2020, and in April 2020, the U.S. government authorities issued recommendations on the use of masks and gloves as protective measures. Despite such recommendations, popular media reports highlighted a lack [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 outbreak was declared a national emergency in the U.S. in March 2020, and in April 2020, the U.S. government authorities issued recommendations on the use of masks and gloves as protective measures. Despite such recommendations, popular media reports highlighted a lack of compliance. However, no systematic study has examined the use of protective strategies (e.g., wearing a mask) by the American public to prevent the spread of COVID-19 during early stages of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to conduct a rapid national assessment of public behaviors to prevent COVID-19 spread during the early stages of the pandemic and to assess how these behaviors may have differed based on selected sociodemographic characteristics. A total of 835 adult Americans nationwide took a multi-item survey and were asked about wearing masks, gloves, and their demographic background. The majority of the study participants reported wearing a mask more often during the pandemic (76%), but the majority did not wear gloves more often during the pandemic (30%). Significant differences (p < 0.05) for wearing masks were found based on sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, living arrangements, and employment status. For gloves, significant differences were found based on sex, age, marital status, and employment. While the pandemic continues to unfold and with recent reports of a surge in cases in the U.S., public health practitioners and policymakers must emphasize COVID-19 prevention strategies for the general public and explore pragmatic options to increase compliance of protective behaviors among the general public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
Article
Initial Inoculum and the Severity of COVID-19: A Mathematical Modeling Study of the Dose-Response of SARS-CoV-2 Infections
Epidemiologia 2020, 1(1), 5-15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia1010003 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causes a variety of responses in those who contract the virus, ranging from asymptomatic infections to acute respiratory failure and death. While there are likely multiple mechanisms triggering severe disease, one potential cause of severe disease [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causes a variety of responses in those who contract the virus, ranging from asymptomatic infections to acute respiratory failure and death. While there are likely multiple mechanisms triggering severe disease, one potential cause of severe disease is the size of the initial inoculum. For other respiratory diseases, larger initial doses lead to more severe outcomes. We investigate whether there is a similar link for SARS-CoV-2 infections using the combination of an agent-based model (ABM) and a partial differential equation model (PDM). We use the model to examine the viral time course for different sizes of initial inocula, generating dose-response curves for peak viral load, time of viral peak, viral growth rate, infection duration, and area under the viral titer curve. We find that large initial inocula lead to short infections, but with higher viral titer peaks; and that smaller initial inocula lower the viral titer peak, but make the infection last longer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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Editorial
Post-Modern Epidemiology: Back to the Populations
Epidemiologia 2020, 1(1), 2-4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia1010002 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
The creation of new journal about epidemiology is a good opportunity to think about the state of the field and to make proposals for its development [...] Full article
Editorial
Introduction to a New Open Access Journal by MDPI: Epidemiologia
Epidemiologia 2020, 1(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia1010001 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1213
Abstract
I am pleased to announce a new journal in the field of epidemiology [...] Full article
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