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Review

How the Heart Was Involved in COVID-19 during the First Pandemic Phase: A Review

1
Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Sciences for Health Promotion and Mother and Child Care “Giuseppe D’Alessandro”, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerardo Chowell
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first observed in Wuhan, Hubei Province (China) in December 2019, resulting in an acute respiratory syndrome. Only later was COVID-19 considered a public health emergency of international concern and, on 11 March 2020, the WHO classified it as pandemic. Despite being a respiratory virus, the clinical manifestations are also characterized by cardiological involvement, especially in patients suffering from previous comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, its complications being potentially serious or fatal. Despite the efforts made by the scientific community to identify pathophysiological mechanisms, they still remain unclear. A fundamental role is played by the angiotensin 2 converting enzyme, known for its effects at the cardiovascular level and for its involvement in COVID-19 pathogenesis. The goal of this paper was to highlight the mechanisms and knowledge related to cardiovascular involvement during the first pandemic phase, as well as to emphasize the main cardiological complications in infected patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Coronavirus; Sars-CoV-2; COVID-19; cardiovascular disease; cytokine storm Coronavirus; Sars-CoV-2; COVID-19; cardiovascular disease; cytokine storm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Canalella, A.; Vitale, E.; Vella, F.; Senia, P.; Cannizzaro, E.; Ledda, C.; Rapisarda, V. How the Heart Was Involved in COVID-19 during the First Pandemic Phase: A Review. Epidemiologia 2021, 2, 124-139. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2010011

AMA Style

Canalella A, Vitale E, Vella F, Senia P, Cannizzaro E, Ledda C, Rapisarda V. How the Heart Was Involved in COVID-19 during the First Pandemic Phase: A Review. Epidemiologia. 2021; 2(1):124-139. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2010011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Canalella, Andrea, Ermanno Vitale, Francesca Vella, Paola Senia, Emanuele Cannizzaro, Caterina Ledda, and Venerando Rapisarda. 2021. "How the Heart Was Involved in COVID-19 during the First Pandemic Phase: A Review" Epidemiologia 2, no. 1: 124-139. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2010011

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