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Epidemiologia, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Russia was the first country to approve a COVID-19 vaccine. However, vaccination rates have remained surprisingly low, with only 15% of the population fully vaccinated by July 21. Comparing the number of doses produced, domestically administered, and internationally exported revealed that more first doses of Sputnik V had been administered abroad than domestically by May 6, suggesting that delays in production are unlikely to be the main reason behind the slow rollout. Vaccination hesitancy levels in Russia are among the highest worldwide and vaccination rates increased in July after several regions mandated the vaccine, suggesting that vaccine hesitancy may have played a key role. Other hypotheses include a desire to help less technologically advanced nations and possible geopolitical incentives. View this paper.
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Case Report
Addressing Different Needs: The Challenges Faced by India as the Largest Vaccine Manufacturer While Conducting the World’s Biggest COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 454-470; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030032 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted some of the challenges that countries face when balancing domestic and global necessities, for example with regard to vaccine needs, production and distribution. As India hosts one of the world’s largest vaccine manufacturing industries and has one of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted some of the challenges that countries face when balancing domestic and global necessities, for example with regard to vaccine needs, production and distribution. As India hosts one of the world’s largest vaccine manufacturing industries and has one of the most extensive vaccination strategies, the country is particularly exposed to these challenges. This has become all the more obvious as the country experienced a second pandemic wave in the first half of 2021, which has led to a total ban on exports of COVID-19 vaccines. An analysis of the national vaccination strategy and the domestic vaccine industry through review of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, and news reports showed the fragile balance between domestic and international needs. A numerical comparison of India’s domestic COVID-19 vaccine needs, export agreements, and production capacities was conducted. It was found that at current production rates as of April 2021, meeting all of the needs and complying with all of the agreements would be impossible. Scale-ups in production, as promised by the industry, however, will enable the achievement of all targets in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Strategies of COVID-19)
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Case Report
COVID-19 Outbreak Management and Vaccination Strategy in The United States of America
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 426-453; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030031 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Four months after the first case of COVID-19 was reported in the United States, the SARS-CoV-2 virus had spread to more than 90% of all counties. Although the transmission of the virus can be grossly mitigated through non-pharmaceutical interventions and public health measures, [...] Read more.
Four months after the first case of COVID-19 was reported in the United States, the SARS-CoV-2 virus had spread to more than 90% of all counties. Although the transmission of the virus can be grossly mitigated through non-pharmaceutical interventions and public health measures, risks of future outbreaks, emergence of more infectious variants, and disruptions to socio-economic life will probably remain until effective vaccines are administered to large portions of the global population. An exceptional collaboration between governments and the scientific community has led to the authorization of eight vaccines globally for full use, four of which were funded and developed in the United States. In this paper, we contextualize epidemiological, political, and economic impacts of the COVID-19 vaccination strategy in the United States of America between 20 January 2020, to 5 May 2021, with a key focus on vaccine hesitancy and public-private partnerships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Strategies of COVID-19)
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccination Strategy in China: A Case Study
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 402-425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030030 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China was first reported to the World Health Organization on 31 December 2019, after the first cases were officially identified around 8 December 2019. However, the case of an infected patient of 55 years old can [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China was first reported to the World Health Organization on 31 December 2019, after the first cases were officially identified around 8 December 2019. However, the case of an infected patient of 55 years old can probably be traced back on 17 November. The spreading has been rapid and heterogeneous. Economic, political and social impacts have not been long overdue. This paper, based on English, French and Chinese research in national and international databases, aims to study the COVID-19 situation in China through the management of the outbreak and the Chinese response to vaccination strategy. The coronavirus disease pandemic is under control in China through non-pharmaceutical interventions, and the mass vaccination program has been launched to further prevent the disease and progressed steadily with 483.34 million doses having been administered across the country by 21 May 2021. China is also acting as an important player in the development and production of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Strategies of COVID-19)
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Article
Sex Differences in Cancer-Specific Survival Are Pronounced during Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A SEER Population-Based Study
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 391-401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030029 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Sex differences in cancer survival may be related to hormonal changes during puberty and menopause; therefore, we investigated sex differences in the cancer-specific survival rates of children, adolescents and young adults (AYAs), and older adults with sex-nonspecific cancers. We interrogated the November 2019 [...] Read more.
Sex differences in cancer survival may be related to hormonal changes during puberty and menopause; therefore, we investigated sex differences in the cancer-specific survival rates of children, adolescents and young adults (AYAs), and older adults with sex-nonspecific cancers. We interrogated the November 2019 submission of the SEER 18 database and included microscopically confirmed cases of first primary malignant tumors. We stratified the dataset into children (<15 years), AYAs (modified; 15–49 years), and older adults (≥50 years). For each age group, we used the Kaplan–Meier method to estimate the sex-stratified 5-year all-site cancer-specific survival probabilities. Of 3,386,276 eligible patients, 45,124 (1.3%) were children, 548,158 (16.2%) were AYAs, and 2,792,994 (82.5%) were older adults. The 5-year all-site cancer-specific survival probabilities were 84.0% (95% CI, 83.5%–84.5%) for boys, 84.8% (95% CI, 84.3%–85.3%) for girls, 70.4% (95% CI, 70.2%–70.6%) for male AYAs, 80.8% (95% CI, 80.6%–81.0%) for female AYAs, 52.0% (95% CI, 51.9%–52.1%) for older adult men, and 52.2% (95% CI, 52.1%–52.3%) for older adult women. The all-site survival rate for female patients with cancer is markedly higher than for male patients with cancer during adolescence and young adulthood, although this difference diminishes in older adulthood. Full article
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Review
Vaccination Is Not Enough: Understanding the Increase in Cases of COVID-19 in Chile despite a High Vaccination Rate
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 377-390; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030028 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Chile, an OECD country in the southern hemisphere, surprised the world with a high speed COVID-19 vaccination rate at the beginning of 2021. Despite this, cases reached a record high again in April 2021, and the country went back to a state of [...] Read more.
Chile, an OECD country in the southern hemisphere, surprised the world with a high speed COVID-19 vaccination rate at the beginning of 2021. Despite this, cases reached a record high again in April 2021, and the country went back to a state of emergency. The reasons for this are multiple, complex, and interconnected. A feeling of false safety with the beginning of vaccination, the appearance of new more transmissible variants, too early relaxation of non-pharmacological measures at a point of vaccination below herd immunity, and vaccination in a high prevalence setting, appear to be main reasons for the resurgence. However, the political context and the socio-economic inequalities in Chile also play an important role, and are more difficult to measure and to compare with other countries. In conclusion, the Chilean example is a warning sign not to count on vaccination figures alone, and to maintain some of the previous non-pharmaceutical strategies to contain the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Strategies of COVID-19)
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Article
The Fast Approval and Slow Rollout of Sputnik V: Why Is Russia’s Vaccine Rollout Slower than That of Other Nations?
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 360-376; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030027 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the beginning of 2020 led to the deployment of enormous amounts of resources by different countries for vaccine development, and the Russian Federation was the first country in the world to approve a COVID-19 vaccine on [...] Read more.
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the beginning of 2020 led to the deployment of enormous amounts of resources by different countries for vaccine development, and the Russian Federation was the first country in the world to approve a COVID-19 vaccine on 11 August 2020. In our research we sought to crystallize why the rollout of Sputnik V has been relatively slow considering that it was the first COVID-19 vaccine approved in the world. We looked at production capacity, at the number of vaccine doses domestically administered and internationally exported, and at vaccine hesitancy levels. By 6 May 2021, more first doses of Sputnik V had been administered abroad than domestically, suggesting that limited production capacity was unlikely to be the main reason behind the slow rollout. What remains unclear, however, is why Russia prioritized vaccine exportation. We provide three hypotheses that may contribute to explaining the slow domestic rollout: a generalized vaccine distrust among the Russian population, a desire to help less technologically advanced nations, and possible geopolitical incentives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Strategies of COVID-19)
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Article
The COVID-19 Vaccination Strategy in Brazil—A Case Study
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 338-359; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030026 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Brazil is among the countries which have faced two devastating infection waves of COVID-19 in the past year. Despite the fact the country has one of the world’s leading immunization programs, Brazil only slowly established a national COVID-19 vaccination strategy and campaign. This [...] Read more.
Brazil is among the countries which have faced two devastating infection waves of COVID-19 in the past year. Despite the fact the country has one of the world’s leading immunization programs, Brazil only slowly established a national COVID-19 vaccination strategy and campaign. This case study is based on an integrative review of primary and secondary literature sources. Different search strategies on Medline and Google Scholar were performed for the case presentation, for the management and outcome of the COVID-19 outbreak and for the state of the COVID-19 vaccination program. Official documents from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, the website of the World Health Organization and pharmaceutical companies were also reviewed. Searches were limited to English, French, German, Portuguese and Spanish. This article describes the Brazilian COVID-19 vaccination campaign and the drivers and barriers to its implementation; and evaluates further investigations needed to have a conclusive overview over the constantly evolving situation. Healthcare inequalities, which were widened during the pandemic, a lack of coordination at the federal level, the absence of federal government support for scientific research and the lack of endorsement and commitment to the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic set the country’s COVID-19 vaccination campaign off to a challenging start. However, Brazil had a well-developed primary care system and national vaccination program prior to the pandemic, which are both important facilitators. At the time of writing, six vaccines are currently available in the country, and the program is advancing. The scientific community needs to continue to investigate the country’s vaccination strategy and its implementation to make sure that maximum effort is undertaken for the health of the Brazilian population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Strategies of COVID-19)
Article
On Deterministic and Stochastic Multiple Pathogen Epidemic Models
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 325-337; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030025 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
In this paper, we consider a stochastic epidemic model with two pathogens. In order to analyze the coexistence of two pathogens, we compute numerically the expectation time until extinction (the mean persistence time), which satisfies a stationary partial differential equation with degenerate variable [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider a stochastic epidemic model with two pathogens. In order to analyze the coexistence of two pathogens, we compute numerically the expectation time until extinction (the mean persistence time), which satisfies a stationary partial differential equation with degenerate variable coefficients, related to backward Kolmogorov equation. I use the finite element method in order to solve this equation, and we implement it in FreeFem++. The main conclusion of this paper is that the deterministic and stochastic epidemic models differ considerably in predicting coexistence of the two diseases and in the extinction outcome of one of them. Now, the main challenge would be to find an explanation for this result. Full article
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Data Descriptor
A Large-Scale COVID-19 Twitter Chatter Dataset for Open Scientific Research—An International Collaboration
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 315-324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030024 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread worldwide, an unprecedented amount of open data is being generated for medical, genetics, and epidemiological research. The unparalleled rate at which many research groups around the world are releasing data and publications on the ongoing pandemic [...] Read more.
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread worldwide, an unprecedented amount of open data is being generated for medical, genetics, and epidemiological research. The unparalleled rate at which many research groups around the world are releasing data and publications on the ongoing pandemic is allowing other scientists to learn from local experiences and data generated on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is a need to integrate additional data sources that map and measure the role of social dynamics of such a unique worldwide event in biomedical, biological, and epidemiological analyses. For this purpose, we present a large-scale curated dataset of over 1.12 billion tweets, growing daily, related to COVID-19 chatter generated from 1 January 2020 to 27 June 2021 at the time of writing. This data source provides a freely available additional data source for researchers worldwide to conduct a wide and diverse number of research projects, such as epidemiological analyses, emotional and mental responses to social distancing measures, the identification of sources of misinformation, stratified measurement of sentiment towards the pandemic in near real time, among many others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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Brief Report
Rapid and Convenient Quantitative Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Serous Saliva with a Direct PCR Method
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 305-314; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030023 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Sensitive and accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), frequently performed using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is essential for restricting the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, studies evaluating accurate detection are still required. This study evaluated the [...] Read more.
Sensitive and accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), frequently performed using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is essential for restricting the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, studies evaluating accurate detection are still required. This study evaluated the quantitativeness and sensitivity of the Ampdirect™ 2019-nCoV detection kit, a direct PCR method. Using saliva with or without Tris-buffered saline (TBS) dilution, linearity, and limits of the N1 and N2 regions of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA were assessed using EDX SARS-CoV-2 RNA standard dissolved in RNase-free water (RFW). Fluorescence intensities in non-diluted saliva were higher than those in TBS-diluted samples. Linear regression analysis of detected quantification cycle values and spiked standard RNA concentrations showed that the coefficient of determination of the N1 and N2 genes was 0.972 and 0.615 in RFW and 0.947 and 0.660 in saliva, respectively. N1- and N2-positive detection rates in saliva were 46% (6/13 tests) and 0% (0/12 tests) at one copy/reaction, respectively. These results indicate good quantitativeness and sensitivity for N1 but not for N2. Therefore, our findings reveal that the Ampdirect™ 2019-nCoV system, especially targeting the N1 gene, enables rapid and convenient quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva at one copy/reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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Article
The Role of Mobility and Sanitary Measures on the Delay of Community Transmission of COVID-19 in Costa Rica
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 294-304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030022 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to infer the effects that change on human mobility had on the transmission dynamics during the first four months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Costa Rica, which could have played a role in delaying community transmission in [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to infer the effects that change on human mobility had on the transmission dynamics during the first four months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Costa Rica, which could have played a role in delaying community transmission in the country. First, by using parametric and non-parametric change-point detection techniques, we were able to identify two different periods when the trend of daily new cases significantly changed. Second, we explored the association of these changes with data on population mobility. This also allowed us to estimate the lag between changes in human mobility and rates of daily new cases. The information was then used to establish an association between changes in population mobility and the sanitary measures adopted during the study period. Results showed that during the initial two months of the pandemic in Costa Rica, the implementation of sanitary measures and their impact on reducing human mobility translated to a mean reduction of 54% in the number of daily cases from the projected number, delaying community transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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Article
Analysis of Delayed Vaccination Regimens: A Mathematical Modeling Approach
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 271-293; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030021 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
The first round of vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in early December of 2020 in a few countries. There are several vaccines, and each has a different efficacy and mechanism of action. Several countries, for example, the United Kingdom and the [...] Read more.
The first round of vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in early December of 2020 in a few countries. There are several vaccines, and each has a different efficacy and mechanism of action. Several countries, for example, the United Kingdom and the USA, have been able to develop consistent vaccination programs where a great percentage of the population has been vaccinated (May 2021). However, in other countries, a low percentage of the population has been vaccinated due to constraints related to vaccine supply and distribution capacity. Countries such as the USA and the UK have implemented different vaccination strategies, and some scholars have been debating the optimal strategy for vaccine campaigns. This problem is complex due to the great number of variables that affect the relevant outcomes. In this article, we study the impact of different vaccination regimens on main health outcomes such as deaths, hospitalizations, and the number of infected. We develop a mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission to focus on this important health policy issue. Thus, we are able to identify the optimal strategy regarding vaccination campaigns. We find that for vaccines with high efficacy (>70%) after the first dose, the optimal strategy is to delay inoculation with the second dose. On the other hand, for a low first dose vaccine efficacy, it is better to use the standard vaccination regimen of 4 weeks between doses. Thus, under the delayed second dose option, a campaign focus on generating a certain immunity in as great a number of people as fast as possible is preferable to having an almost perfect immunity in fewer people first. Therefore, based on these results, we suggest that the UK implemented a better vaccination campaign than that in the USA with regard to time between doses. The results presented here provide scientific guidelines for other countries where vaccination campaigns are just starting, or the percentage of vaccinated people is small. Full article
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Article
Epidemiology of COVID-19 in the State of Sergipe/Brazil and Its Relationship with Social Indicators
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 262-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/epidemiologia2030020 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
A pandemic is capable of generating a great impact, not only from the point of view of health, but also socioeconomically. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that a new pandemic situation had arisen, due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, whose [...] Read more.
A pandemic is capable of generating a great impact, not only from the point of view of health, but also socioeconomically. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that a new pandemic situation had arisen, due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, whose probable origin was zoonotic. The largest number of cases of this disease is concentrated in the United States of America (USA), India, and Brazil. The mortality rate is estimated at 3.4%, but regional differences may exist, and places with a high demographic density have become true epicentres and may be related to higher rates of transmission. In addition to the above, lower human development indexes (HDI) can be related to worse outcomes, especially in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil since they are the least developed places. The Northeast region is the second-most-affected place in the number of COVID-19 cases in Brazil. An analytical observational study of an ecological type was carried out from April to October 2020 to assess the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in the state of Sergipe and specifically to analyse the incidence of cases and deaths resulting from COVID-19 in the different health regions of the state of Sergipe, in relation to the values of the HDI and demographic density. During the study period, 84,325 cases of COVID-19 were identified, in which 2205 resulted in death. In most of the regions studied, there was a positive association between the number of cases and deaths and the greater the demographic density, but there was no increase in the risk of becoming ill, nor of dying the lower the HDI. Large and crowded cities are places of greatest vulnerability to illness, due to their greater capacity of transmitting the virus; however, further studies are needed to identify other factors that are decisive in the outcomes of this new disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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Brief Report
The Environment of Birthplace and Self-Reported Mental Health Conditions: Findings from the American Panel of Life
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 256-261; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030019 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Studies from around the globe have found that urbanicity is associated with greater risk for certain psychiatric disorders, though the association has been less evident in the United States. We analyzed data collected in 2019 from the RAND American Life Panel (n [...] Read more.
Studies from around the globe have found that urbanicity is associated with greater risk for certain psychiatric disorders, though the association has been less evident in the United States. We analyzed data collected in 2019 from the RAND American Life Panel (n = 2554), which were representative of the general adult population of the United States. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the associations between environment of birthplace (large urban, small urban, suburban, rural) and psychiatric disorders, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. We found that being born in a large urban area was associated with greater odds of having any psychiatric disorder when compared with being born in a rural area. However, when looking at specific disorders, we found that being born in a large urban area was only significantly associated greater odds of anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but was not associated with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or alcohol/substance use disorder. Being born in a small urban area was marginally associated with anxiety disorder. Future studies should examine why urban birthplace has only been associated with anxiety disorders and PTSD in the United States, and why urbanicity is associated with mood disorders in other parts of the world but not in the United States. Full article
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Review
The COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil: Some Aspects and Tools
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 243-255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030018 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The article presents some aspects related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil including public health, challenges facing healthcare workers and adverse impacts on the country’s economy. Its main contribution is the availability of two web applications for online monitoring of the evolution of [...] Read more.
The article presents some aspects related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil including public health, challenges facing healthcare workers and adverse impacts on the country’s economy. Its main contribution is the availability of two web applications for online monitoring of the evolution of the pandemic in Brazil and South America. The applications provide the possibility to download data in different formats, view interactive maps and graphs of the cumulative confirmed cases, deaths and lethality rates, in addition to presenting plots of moving averages for states and municipalities. The predictions about new cases and new deaths caused by COVID-19, in states and regions of Brazil, are also reported using GAMLSS models. The forecasts can be easily used by public managers for effective decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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Article
A Cross-Sectional Examination of the Mental Wellbeing, Coping and Quality of Working Life in Health and Social Care Workers in the UK at Two Time Points of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(3), 227-242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2030017 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 911
Abstract
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve around the world, it is important to examine its effect on societies and individuals, including health and social care (HSC) professionals. The aim of this study was to compare cross-sectional data collected from HSC staff in [...] Read more.
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve around the world, it is important to examine its effect on societies and individuals, including health and social care (HSC) professionals. The aim of this study was to compare cross-sectional data collected from HSC staff in the UK at two time points during the COVID-19 pandemic: Phase 1 (May–July 2020) and Phase 2 (November 2020–January 2021). The HSC staff surveyed consisted of nurses, midwives, allied health professionals, social care workers and social workers from across the UK (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland). Multiple regressions were used to examine the effects of different coping strategies and demographic and work-related variables on participants’ wellbeing and quality of working life to see how and if the predictors changed over time. An additional multiple regression was used to directly examine the effects of time (Phase 1 vs. Phase 2) on the outcome variables. Findings suggested that both wellbeing and quality of working life deteriorated from Phase 1 to Phase 2. The results have the potential to inform interventions for HSC staff during future waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, other infectious outbreaks or even other circumstances putting long-term pressures on HSC systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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