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Epidemiologia, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 3 articles

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Article
Control of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Success Case Based on Deltamethrin 4% Collars
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(4), 502-518; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2040035 - 14 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The effect of employing collars impregnated with deltamethrin 4% (DM4) to control canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was evaluated. as were the individual factors associated with this infection. A cohort study that included household dogs was conducted between 2002 and 2006. The presence of [...] Read more.
The effect of employing collars impregnated with deltamethrin 4% (DM4) to control canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was evaluated. as were the individual factors associated with this infection. A cohort study that included household dogs was conducted between 2002 and 2006. The presence of pathognomonic signals, peridomiciliary sleep habits and breed were the main factors associated with the infection. The use of DM4 collars contributed to the reduction of CVL with an effectiveness of 66%, and the dogs’ survival rate was greater than 90% at 50 months. In conclusion, the adoption of DM4 collars reduced the number of euthanized canines and in the incidence of CVL, and this reduction was sustained for one year after discontinuing the use of the collar. Full article
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Article
Epidemiological Analysis of COVID-19 Cases in Native Amazonian Communities from Peru
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(4), 490-501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2040034 - 09 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Despite early control measures, SARS-CoV-2 reached all regions of Peru during the first wave of the pandemic, including native communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in the Amazonas region of Peru using an open [...] Read more.
Despite early control measures, SARS-CoV-2 reached all regions of Peru during the first wave of the pandemic, including native communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in the Amazonas region of Peru using an open database of 11,124 COVID-19 cases reported from 19 March to 29 July 2020, including 3278 cases from native communities. A high-incidence area in northern Amazonas (Condorcanqui) reported a cumulative incidence of 63.84/1000 inhabitants with a much lower death rate (0.95%) than the national average. Our results showed at least eight significant factors for mortality, and the Native Amazonian ethnicity as a protective factor. Molecular confirmatory tests are necessary to better explain the high incidence of antibody response reported in these communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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Article
Data-Driven Deep-Learning Algorithm for Asymptomatic COVID-19 Model with Varying Mitigation Measures and Transmission Rate
Epidemiologia 2021, 2(4), 471-489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/epidemiologia2040033 - 24 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Epidemiological models with constant parameters may not capture satisfactory infection patterns in the presence of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical mitigation measures during a pandemic, since infectiousness is a function of time. In this paper, an Epidemiology-Informed Neural Network algorithm is introduced to learn the [...] Read more.
Epidemiological models with constant parameters may not capture satisfactory infection patterns in the presence of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical mitigation measures during a pandemic, since infectiousness is a function of time. In this paper, an Epidemiology-Informed Neural Network algorithm is introduced to learn the time-varying transmission rate for the COVID-19 pandemic in the presence of various mitigation scenarios. There are asymptomatic infectives, mostly unreported, and the proposed algorithm learns the proportion of the total infective individuals that are asymptomatic infectives. Using cumulative and daily reported cases of the symptomatic infectives, we simulate the impact of non-pharmaceutical mitigation measures such as early detection of infectives, contact tracing, and social distancing on the basic reproduction number. We demonstrate the effectiveness of vaccination on the transmission of COVID-19. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using error metrics in the data-driven simulation for COVID-19 data of Italy, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving COVID-19 Epidemiology and Dynamics)
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