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Volume 1, June

Osteology, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In recent years, cathepsins have been identified as a novel target for numerous cancers. This review paper is focused on the role of cathepsins in both primary and metastatic bone cancer. We discuss the physiologic and pathologic role of cathepsins in the development and progression of these cancers. We also review the growing interest in the use of cathepsins as diagnostic markers and cathepsin inhibitors as a novel therapeutics for clinical use. Preclinical and clinical studies support the use of cathepsin inhibitors for therapeutic use in primary and metastatic bone cancer. Further research is needed to progress the use of cathepsin targets for prognostic and therapeutic use in patients. View this paper
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Article
Comparative Evaluation of Primary Stability between Different Diameters Multi-Scale Roughness Dental Implant by Solid Rigid Polyurethane Simulation
Osteology 2021, 1(1), 62-72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1010006 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
Background: Implant primary stability is determined by screw characteristics and surgical procedure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, on a polyurethane model, the insertion torque (IT), removal torque (RT), and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) of multi-scale roughness dental implants of [...] Read more.
Background: Implant primary stability is determined by screw characteristics and surgical procedure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, on a polyurethane model, the insertion torque (IT), removal torque (RT), and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) of multi-scale roughness dental implants of different diameters. Methods: Two implant sizes were tested on two polyurethane blocks (20 pounds per cubic foot (PCF) and 30 PCF): 3.0 diameter and 13 mm length and 5.0 diameter and 13 mm length. The IT, RT, and RFA were assessed. Results: A significant difference of IT and RT was present in favor of wider implants at both polyurethane densities. No statistical difference was present between the 5.0 diameter and 3.0 diameter implants at both polyurethane densities. A statistically increased RFA was reported for 5.0 implant 30 PCF polyurethane blocks. Conclusions: Multi-scale roughness dental implants of both diameters showed high insertion torque and primary stability on polyurethane blocks, which is valuable for implant loading protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Osteology)
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Systematic Review
Isolated Medial Subtalar Joint Dislocation during Sports Activities: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Individual Participant Data Analysis
Osteology 2021, 1(1), 48-61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1010005 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
In athletes, one of the most common injuries is a sprained ankle. If the energy of the trauma is particularly high, this type of injury can lead to an isolated medial dislocation of the subtalar joint (STJ), a rare condition poorly described in [...] Read more.
In athletes, one of the most common injuries is a sprained ankle. If the energy of the trauma is particularly high, this type of injury can lead to an isolated medial dislocation of the subtalar joint (STJ), a rare condition poorly described in the literature. The aim of this study was to verify if a reliable conservative treatment and a specific physiotherapy rehabilitation protocol in isolated medial dislocation of the STJ in athletes is described in the literature. A systematic review of the published literature of the last 11 years was performed by applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using three databases: Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The keywords used were “(subtalar OR talocalcaneal) AND dislocation”. We considered only studies that included professional or amateur athletes (athletic patients). We used the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale, range of motion (ROM) of the subtalar and ankle joint, subtalar and talonavicular joint osteoarthritis, and patient feedback to evaluate their outcomes. A total of 12 studies were included in our review, with a total of 26 athletic patients. Sixteen of them had good results with the correlation between the duration of immobilisation and the outcomes. Nevertheless, due to the small number of patients included in the analysed studies on this subject in the literature, there is not yet a univocal clinical protocol to treat the isolated medial subtalar joint dislocation (STJD) warranting further research in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Osteology)
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Article
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Current Practice Management and Referral Trends in a Closed Healthcare System
Osteology 2021, 1(1), 39-47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1010004 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic condition that can present with severe pain and dysfunction. Delay in treatment adversely affects outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate patient outcomes as they relate to the time from diagnosis to [...] Read more.
Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic condition that can present with severe pain and dysfunction. Delay in treatment adversely affects outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate patient outcomes as they relate to the time from diagnosis to pain management referral once the diagnosis of CRPS has been made in a closed healthcare system. Methods: A retrospective record review from a closed healthcare system was utilized for CRPS cases from 2010–2019. Demographics, injury pattern, surgeries, pain score, treatment modalities, occupational outcomes, and time to pain management referral were recorded. Results: There were 26 cases of CRPS that met inclusion criteria. The mean time from diagnosis to treatment was 55 days. 16/26 (61.5%) were medically discharged from the military. 23/26 (88.5%) were unable to return to full duty due to CRPS. There was no significant difference in the reported pain scores over time regardless of treatment (p = 0.76). A linear regression demonstrated a significantly higher Visual Analog Scale Pain Score (VAS) over time in patients that were medically discharged (p = 0.022). Conclusions: The mean delay in referral to the pain service was 55 days. The majority of patients (88.5%) did not return to full duty secondary to the diagnosis of CRPS, and 61.5% of patients required medical separation from active duty. Due to the negative impact that the diagnosis of CRPS has on occupational outcomes with a mean delay in referral of 55 days, clinics and providers should set up referral criteria and establish early pain pathways for patients diagnosed with CRPS. Full article
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Article
Delayed Rehabilitation Protocol after Rotator Cuff Repair
Osteology 2021, 1(1), 29-38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1010003 - 26 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
Rotator cuff tears are a frequent cause of shoulder pain that often require arthroscopic repair. After surgery an intense and well-studied rehabilitation protocol is needed to obtain the complete recovery of shoulder function. Fifty patients, who sustained arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for symptomatic, [...] Read more.
Rotator cuff tears are a frequent cause of shoulder pain that often require arthroscopic repair. After surgery an intense and well-studied rehabilitation protocol is needed to obtain the complete recovery of shoulder function. Fifty patients, who sustained arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for symptomatic, atraumatic and full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tear, were involved. According to our rehabilitation protocol, during the first four postoperative weeks, the arm was supported with an abduction sling pillow, and pendulum exercises, table slide and active elbow extension and flexion were conceded. Outcome measures (Oxford shoulder score (OSS), simple shoulder test (SST), patient-reported satisfaction), shoulder function (range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength), and MRI examination were evaluated. The mean OSS score and SST score increased from 16 to 30.2 and from 5.3 to 11.4, respectively. Patient-reported satisfaction was 96%. At 12 months, patients improved ROM and muscle strength. Postoperative passive anterior elevation was 176; external rotation averaged 47; internal rotation was 90. Postoperative muscle strength during anterior elevation was 8.3 ± 2.2 kg, internal rotation 6.8 ± 3 kg, external rotation 5.5 ± 2.3 kg. Five out of seven patients with recurrent tears evaluated their results as satisfactory. They reported improvements in terms of OSS and SST mean scores despite recurrent tears; therefore, they did not undergo revision surgery. The delayed postoperative physical therapy protocol was associated with improvements in the outcome measures and shoulder function compared to the preoperatory state and rotator cuff healing demonstrated by MRI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Osteology)
Review
The Role of Cathepsins in the Growth of Primary and Secondary Neoplasia in the Bone
Osteology 2021, 1(1), 3-28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1010002 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
The upregulation of proteolytic enzymes has been demonstrated to promote primary tumor development and metastatic bone cancer. The secreted proteases increase tumor growth and angiogenesis, and potentiate neoplastic cell dissemination. This article reviews the role and mechanisms of cathepsins in normal physiology, cancer, [...] Read more.
The upregulation of proteolytic enzymes has been demonstrated to promote primary tumor development and metastatic bone cancer. The secreted proteases increase tumor growth and angiogenesis, and potentiate neoplastic cell dissemination. This article reviews the role and mechanisms of cathepsins in normal physiology, cancer, bone remodeling, and the tumor–bone interface, with a specific focus on cathepsins B, D, H, G, L, and K. In this review, we highlight the role of cathepsins in primary bone cancer (i.e., osteosarcoma (OS)), as well as metastatic breast (BCa) and prostate (PCa) cancer. In addition, we discuss the clinical utility and therapeutic potential of cathepsin-targeted treatments in primary and secondary bone cancers. Full article
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Editorial
Introducing Osteology: An International, Peer-Reviewed Open Access Journal to Foster Bone Science
Osteology 2021, 1(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1010001 - 27 May 2020
Viewed by 856
Abstract
The fascinating field of osteology is rapidly developing [...] Full article
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