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Osteology, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 3 articles

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Review
Patellar Instability in Pediatric Patients: Review of the Literature
Osteology 2021, 1(4), 197-208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1040019 - 24 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Patellar instability is a common pathology of the knee in pediatric patients. The management of this condition can be a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon, and a comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the structures around the knee is of utmost [...] Read more.
Patellar instability is a common pathology of the knee in pediatric patients. The management of this condition can be a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon, and a comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the structures around the knee is of utmost importance in formulating a treatment plan. Predisposing factors can be related to: trochlear and patellar morphological abnormalities, ligamentous stabilizers, limb geometries in the axial plane, and patellar height abnormalities. Traditionally, first-time dislocators have been treated non-operatively; however, recent evidence suggests that certain factors are related to recurrent instability, and surgical treatment may be considered even after the first dislocation. It is important to keep in mind that younger children with open physes are not suitable candidates for certain surgical techniques. In this comprehensive review, we aimed to focus on the most up-to-date information on this topic and emphasize the importance of individualizing the treatment of pediatric patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Osteology)
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Article
Prevalence and Patterns of Risk of Osteoporosis in Bangladeshi Adult Population: An Analysis of Calcaneus Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements
Osteology 2021, 1(4), 187-196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1040018 - 03 Oct 2021
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Abstract
(1) Objectives: A little is known about the prevalence of the “risk of osteoporosis (RO)” and the factors associated with RO among Bangladeshi adults. Using a cost-effective testing tool, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RO and find the association between [...] Read more.
(1) Objectives: A little is known about the prevalence of the “risk of osteoporosis (RO)” and the factors associated with RO among Bangladeshi adults. Using a cost-effective testing tool, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RO and find the association between age, gender, and morbidity with RO among adults in Bangladesh. (2) Results: Among 526 subjects, the prevalence of RO was 37.3%. Gender (p =< 0.001), age (p = 0.003), diabetes (p = 0.003), cardiovascular disease (p =< 0.001) and multimorbidity (p =< 0.001) were associated with RO. The causal relationships, by adjusting confounders in the associations of RO and other variables, were depicted graphically. (3) Conclusion: The pattern of association between gender and age with RO was different and exclusive. Different approaches might be needed to alleviate the high burden of RO considering the subjects’ age, gender, and multimorbidity. Full article
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Review
An Overview of Achilles Tendinopathy Management
Osteology 2021, 1(4), 175-186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1040017 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Background: Persistent tendon pain and swelling related to mechanical loading are the main signs of Achilles tendinopathy (AT). This condition is one of the most common tendinopathies of the lower limb affecting mainly athletes involved in running and jumping sports. Methods: we included [...] Read more.
Background: Persistent tendon pain and swelling related to mechanical loading are the main signs of Achilles tendinopathy (AT). This condition is one of the most common tendinopathies of the lower limb affecting mainly athletes involved in running and jumping sports. Methods: we included pivotal papers retrieved from the literature (Pubmed, Google Scholar, PEDro, and Scopus) to present an overview of the management of AT, with a specific focus on conservative management. Results: An accurate and timely diagnosis of AT is necessary to set up early treatments and to manage the problem conservatively. Diagnosis is primarily based on clinical assessment; instrumental imaging may be helpful in confirming the clinical diagnosis. Conservative treatment is effective in most cases, mainly using physical exercise based on eccentric training. Other non-surgical treatments such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy, thermotherapies, and injections can be added to exercise. Surgical treatment is indicated for patients where the conservative treatments of at least six months fails. Conclusions: Conflicting results from numerous studies hamper to identify gold standard treatments asking for further well-conducted level I and II research about the management of AT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Osteology)
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