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Automation, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 6 articles

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Open AccessArticle
State Machine Approach for Lane Changing Driving Behavior Recognition
Automation 2020, 1(1), 68-79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/automation1010006 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Research in understanding human behavior is a growing field within the development of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs). In this contribution, a state machine approach is proposed to develop a driving behavior recognition model. The state machine approach is a behavior model based [...] Read more.
Research in understanding human behavior is a growing field within the development of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs). In this contribution, a state machine approach is proposed to develop a driving behavior recognition model. The state machine approach is a behavior model based on the current state and a given set of inputs. Transitions to different states occur or we remain in the same state producing outputs. The transition between states depends on a set of environmental and driving variables. Based on a heuristic understanding of driving situations modeled as states, as well as one of the related actions modeling the state, using an assumed relation between them as the state machine topology, in this paper, a crisp approach is applied to adapt the model to real behaviors. An important aspect of the contribution is to introduce a trainable state machine-based model to describe drivers’ lane changing behavior. Three driving maneuvers are defined as states. The training of the model is related to the definition/tuning of transition variables (and state definitions). Here, driving data are used as the input for training. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II is used to generate the optimized transition threshold. Comparing the data of actual human driving behaviors collected using driving simulator experiments and the calculated driving behaviors, this approach is able to develop a personalized behavior recognition model. The newly established algorithm presents an easy to apply, reliable, and interpretable AI approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automation in Intelligent Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessEditorial
Automation: A New Open-Access Journal with a Broad Scope and an Exciting Mission
Automation 2020, 1(1), 66-67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/automation1010005 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 589
Abstract
It is a sincere pleasure to welcome you to the inaugural issue of Automation [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimal Control Implementation with Terminal Penalty Using Metaheuristic Algorithms
Automation 2020, 1(1), 48-65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/automation1010004 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Optimal control problems can be solved by a metaheuristic based algorithm (MbA) that yields an open-loop solution. The receding horizon control mechanism can integrate an MbA to produce a closed-loop solution. When the performance index includes a term depending on the final state [...] Read more.
Optimal control problems can be solved by a metaheuristic based algorithm (MbA) that yields an open-loop solution. The receding horizon control mechanism can integrate an MbA to produce a closed-loop solution. When the performance index includes a term depending on the final state (terminal penalty), the prediction’s time possibly surpasses a sampling period. This paper aims to avoid predicting the terminal penalty. The sequence of the best solution’s state variables becomes a reference trajectory; this one is used by a tracking structure that includes the real process, a process model (PM) and a tracking controller (TC). The reference trajectory must be followed up as much as possible by the real trajectory. The TC makes a one-step-ahead prediction and calculates the control inputs through a minimization procedure. Therefore the terminal penalty’s calculation is avoided. An example of a tracking structure is presented. The TC may also use an MbA for its minimization procedure. The implementation is presented in two versions: using a simulated annealing algorithm and an evolutionary algorithm. The simulations have proved that the proposed approach is realistic. The tracking structure does or does not work well, depending on the PM’s accuracy in reproducing the real process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model-Free Current Loop Autotuning for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives
Automation 2020, 1(1), 33-47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/automation1010003 - 24 Sep 2020
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Synchronous reluctance motors are arousing lively interest as a possible alternative to the less efficient induction motors. An open issue is the effective tuning of the inner current loops because of the nonlinearity that cannot be overlooked. The present paper uses a relay [...] Read more.
Synchronous reluctance motors are arousing lively interest as a possible alternative to the less efficient induction motors. An open issue is the effective tuning of the inner current loops because of the nonlinearity that cannot be overlooked. The present paper uses a relay feedback approach to perform autotuning without resorting to any parameter knowledge. The tuning is iterated at different working points, to get a uniform current control bandwidth everywhere. Unlike many solutions in the field, the algorithm is truly autonomous, in the sense that it also suggests a correct value for the bandwidth specification. The paper includes both simulation and experimental results, obtained on a laboratory prototype. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
A Connected Autonomous Vehicle Testbed: Capabilities, Experimental Processes and Lessons Learned
Automation 2020, 1(1), 17-32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/automation1010002 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1511
Abstract
VENTURER was one of the first three UK government funded research and innovation projects on Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) and was conducted predominantly in the South West region of the country. A series of increasingly complex scenarios conducted in an urban setting were [...] Read more.
VENTURER was one of the first three UK government funded research and innovation projects on Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) and was conducted predominantly in the South West region of the country. A series of increasingly complex scenarios conducted in an urban setting were used to: (i) evaluate the technology created as a part of the project; (ii) systematically assess participant responses to CAVs and; (iii) inform the development of potential insurance models and legal frameworks. Developing this understanding contributed key steps towards facilitating the deployment of CAVs on UK roads. This paper aims to describe the VENTURER Project trials, their objectives and detail some of the key technologies used. Importantly we aim to introduce some informative challenges that were overcame and the subsequent project and technological lessons learned in a hope to help others plan and execute future CAV research. The project successfully integrated several technologies crucial to CAV development. These included, a Decision Making System using behaviour trees to make high level decisions; A pilot-control system to smoothly and comfortably turn plans into throttle and steering actuation; Sensing and perception systems to make sense of raw sensor data; Inter-CAV Wireless communication capable of demonstrating vehicle-to-vehicle communication of potential hazards. The closely coupled technology integration, testing and participant-focused trial schedule led to a greatly improved understanding of the engineering and societal barriers that CAV development faces. From a behavioural standpoint the importance of reliability and repeatability far outweighs a need for novel trajectories, while the sensor-to-perception capabilities are critical, the process of verification and validation is extremely time consuming. Additionally, the added capabilities that can be leveraged from inter-CAV communications shows the potential for improved road safety that could result. Importantly, to effectively conduct human factors experiments in the CAV sector under consistent and repeatable conditions, one needs to define a scripted and stable set of scenarios that uses reliable equipment and a controllable environmental setting. This requirement can often be at odds with making significant technology developments, and if both are part of a project’s goals then they may need to be separated from each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automation in Intelligent Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Design Optimization and Sizing for Fly-Gen Airborne Wind Energy Systems
Automation 2020, 1(1), 1-16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/automation1010001 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Traditional on-shore horizontal-axis wind turbines need to be large for both performance reasons (e.g., clearing ground turbulence and reaching higher wind speeds) and for economic reasons (e.g., more efficient land use, lower maintenance costs, and fewer controllers and grid attachments) while their efficiency [...] Read more.
Traditional on-shore horizontal-axis wind turbines need to be large for both performance reasons (e.g., clearing ground turbulence and reaching higher wind speeds) and for economic reasons (e.g., more efficient land use, lower maintenance costs, and fewer controllers and grid attachments) while their efficiency is scale and mass independent. Airborne wind energy (AWE) system efficiency is a function of system size and AWE system operating altitude is less directly coupled to system power rating. This paper derives fly-gen AWE system parameters from small number of design parameters, which are used to optimize a design for energy cost. This paper then scales AWE systems and optimizes them at each scale to determine the relationships between size, efficiency, power output, and cost. The results indicate that physics and economics favor a larger number of small units, at least offshore or where land cost is small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automation in Airborne Wind Energy Systems)
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