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Automation, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 2 articles

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Article
Process Evaluation for Smart Concrete Road Construction:Road Surface and Thickness Evaluation Using High-Speed LiDAR Technology
Automation 2021, 2(1), 31-47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/automation2010002 - 03 Mar 2021
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Abstract
The enhancement of new quality criteria in highway construction is a key aspect to improving the construction process and lifetime of road. In particular, mobile laser scanning systems are nowadays able to provide realistic 3D elevation profiles of a road to detect anomalies. [...] Read more.
The enhancement of new quality criteria in highway construction is a key aspect to improving the construction process and lifetime of road. In particular, mobile laser scanning systems are nowadays able to provide realistic 3D elevation profiles of a road to detect anomalies. In this context, this study utilizes a high-accuracy high-speed mobile mapping vehicle and evaluates a weighted longitudinal profile as an improved measure for evenness analysis. For comparison a classical method with a rolling straight edge was evaluated on the same road section and observed effects are discussed. The second focus is the areal reconstruction of the road thickness. For this purpose, a modern method was developed to spatially synchronize two high-speed laser scans using reference boxes next to the road, to transfer the point clouds into a surface model and to calculate the layer thickness. This procedure was conceptually validated by some pointwise measurements of the layer thickness. With this information, imperfections in the base layer could be detected automatically over a wide area at an early stage and countermeasures might be initiated before constructing the highway. Full article
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Review
Sliding Mode Control with Application to Fault-Tolerant Control: Assessment and Open Problems
Automation 2021, 2(1), 1-30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/automation2010001 - 04 Feb 2021
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Abstract
This paper is prepared within a collaboration between the Instituto Politécnico Nacional, which is a Mexican research institute that manages research on sliding-mode control theory, and the ARIA research team of the Intégration du Matériau au Système Lab., a French research group that [...] Read more.
This paper is prepared within a collaboration between the Instituto Politécnico Nacional, which is a Mexican research institute that manages research on sliding-mode control theory, and the ARIA research team of the Intégration du Matériau au Système Lab., a French research group that engages research on model-based fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control theories. The paper reviews the application of sliding mode control techniques to fault tolerant control and provides perspectives leading to posing some open problems. Operating principles, definitions of the basic concepts are recalled along with the control objectives and design procedures. The evolution of the sliding mode control technique through five generations (as classified by Fridman, Moreno and co-workers) is reviewed. Their respective design procedures, limitations, and robustness properties are also highlighted. The application of the five generations of sliding-mode controllers to fault-tolerant control is discussed. The focus is on some open problems that are judged to commonly be overlooked. Some applications in real-world systems are also presented. Full article
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