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NeuroSci, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2020) – 6 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Post-Mortem 7.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Hippocampus in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy with and without Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
NeuroSci 2020, 1(2), 115-120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurosci1020011 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Introduction and Purpose: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) can be observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), though to a lesser degree than in Alzheimer’s disease. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluates whether CAA has an influence on the degree [...] Read more.
Introduction and Purpose: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) can be observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), though to a lesser degree than in Alzheimer’s disease. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluates whether CAA has an influence on the degree of hippocampal atrophy (HA) and on the incidence of associated micro-infarcts (HMIs) and cortical micro-bleeds (HMBs). Material and Methods: Eight brains with PSP-CAA were compared to 20 PSP brains without CAA. In addition to the neuropathological examination, the hippocampus was evaluated on the most representative coronal section with T2 and T2*-weighted MRI sequences. The average degree of HA was determined in both groups. The incidence of HMIs and HMBs was also compared as well as the frequency of cortical micro-infarcts (CoMIs) and cortical micro-bleeds (CoMBs) in the hemispheric neocortex. Results: The neuropathological examination showed a higher incidence of lacunar infarcts in the PSP-CAA brains compared to the PSP ones. With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the severity of HA and the incidence of HMIs and HMBs was similar between both groups. Additionally, the frequency of CoMIs and CoMBs in the neocortex was comparable. Conclusions: The association of CAA in PSP brains has no influence on the degree of HA and on the incidence of the small cerebrovascular lesions in the hippocampus as well as in the neocortex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Neurosci)
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Open AccessArticle
Blockade of Catecholamine Reuptake in the Prelimbic Cortex Decreases Top-Down Attentional Control in Response to Novel, but not Familiar Appetitive Distracters, within a Timing Paradigm
NeuroSci 2020, 1(2), 99-114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurosci1020010 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Emotionally charged distracters delay timing behavior. Increasing catecholamine levels within the prelimbic cortex has beneficial effects on timing by decreasing the delay after aversive distracters. Here we examined whether increasing catecholamine levels within the prelimbic cortex also protects against the deleterious timing delays [...] Read more.
Emotionally charged distracters delay timing behavior. Increasing catecholamine levels within the prelimbic cortex has beneficial effects on timing by decreasing the delay after aversive distracters. Here we examined whether increasing catecholamine levels within the prelimbic cortex also protects against the deleterious timing delays caused by novel distracters or by familiar appetitive distracters. Rats were trained in a peak-interval procedure and tested in trials with either a novel (unreinforced) distracter, a familiar appetitive (food-reinforced) distracter, or no distracter after being locally infused with catecholamine reuptake blocker nomifensine within the prelimbic cortex. Prelimbic infusion of nomifensine did not alter timing accuracy and precision. However, it increased the delay caused by novel distracters in an inverted-U dose-dependent manner, while being ineffective for appetitive distracters. Together with previous data, these results suggest that catecholaminergic modulation of prelimbic top-down attentional control of interval timing varies with distracter’s valence: prelimbic catecholamines increase attentional control when presented with familiar aversive distracters, have no effect on familiar neutral or familiar appetitive distracters, and decrease it when presented with novel distracters. These findings detail complex interactions between catecholaminergic modulation of attention to timing and nontemporal properties of stimuli, which should be considered when developing therapeutic methods for attentional or affective disorders. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Systems Biology in Neuroscience: the Paramount Importance of Data Sharing and Citation
NeuroSci 2020, 1(2), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurosci1020009 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
The emergence and maturation, in the last decade, of high powerful technologies in the fields of neurogenomics, neurometabolomics, and neuroproteomics has opened exciting novel possibilities of research [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Depolarization Block in the Endocannabinoid System of the Hippocampus
NeuroSci 2020, 1(2), 85-97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurosci1020008 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 537
Abstract
Depolarization block is such a mechanism that the firing activity of a neuronal system is stopped for particular values of the input current. It is important to block epilepsy or unpleasant firing rates. We investigate this property for a non-linear model of CA3 [...] Read more.
Depolarization block is such a mechanism that the firing activity of a neuronal system is stopped for particular values of the input current. It is important to block epilepsy or unpleasant firing rates. We investigate this property for a non-linear model of CA3 hippocampal neurons under the action of endocannabinoid transmitters. The aim is to discover if they induce depolarization block, a property already seen in other neuronal models and observed in some experiments, signifying that the neural population increases its spiking frequency as some main parameter changes until reaching a situation of no firing. The results is theoretical and it could be useful for investigating real system of neurons of the hippocampus. In some papers it has been shown that this property is connected with bistability, which means that the system has two equilibrium states for some ranges of its parameters. Endocannabinoids influence the learning and memory process and so we concentrate our attention on the CA3 neurons of the hippocampus. We find bistability and depolarization block for the considered model, which is a generalization of the Wilson-Cowan model. The model describes average properties of neurons divided in three classes: the excitatory neuronal population (CA3 neurons) and two types of inhibitory neuron populations (basket cells). The exogenous concentration of cannabinoids is the parameter that controls bistability. This result can be used for an experiment that could give information for medical therapy. We study the time evolution of the synapses connecting the excitatory population with two types of basket cells. The evolution of synaptic weights is considered to be a toy model of the learning process. But this model cannot encompass the complexity and diversity of exogenous and endogenous endocannabinoids effects in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Neurosci)
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Open AccessArticle
PANS/PANDAS: Clinical Experience in IVIG Treatment and State of the Art in Rehabilitation Approaches
NeuroSci 2020, 1(2), 75-84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurosci1020007 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a condition characterized by the abrupt, dramatic onset of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) or eating restriction accompanied by equally abrupt and severe comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms. PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection) is a heterogeneous syndrome [...] Read more.
Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a condition characterized by the abrupt, dramatic onset of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) or eating restriction accompanied by equally abrupt and severe comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms. PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection) is a heterogeneous syndrome identified as post-Streptococcus pyogenes infection (β-hemolytic Streptococcus group A) complications regarding the central nervous system with specific involvement of neuropsychiatric and behavioral skills. In the first part of our study, we share our experience in the treatment of a group of extreme-grade (according to CY-BOCS severity scale) symptomatic patients with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), following the most recent studies regarding the dosage of the drug. Our contribution is to share our experience made on a sample of 55 patients all in the highest level of a severity grade. In the second part of our study, we also analyze the literature on PANS/PANDAS rehabilitation therapy, since in the literature there is no discussion of union and comparison on this method. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the clinical features of the patients observed from different Italian cohorts, with the attempt at evaluating clinical response to IVIG treatment in children with an extreme severity grade of PANS/PANDAS disease. Furthermore, after having analyzed the literature, we propose rehabilitation therapy as an added value to the pharmacological treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 patients with a diagnosis of PANS/PANDAS, who belonged to an extreme grade of disease, were enrolled. All patients were administered with IVIG treatment at 2 g/kg per day for two consecutive days. Results: From our study, a noticeable improvement (until complete remission) of symptoms was evident for at least one year in 47 out of 55 (85%) observed children, while 11 out of these 43 (25%) showed an evident symptoms remission in a single attempt and the remaining 32 (75%) required a second administration to notice a lasting symptomatic improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Neurosci)
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Open AccessArticle
Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Children’s Amygdala Volume: Minorities’ Diminish Returns
NeuroSci 2020, 1(2), 59-74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurosci1020006 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
Considerable research has suggested that low socioeconomic status (SES) negatively influences brain structure, including but not limited to decreased amygdala volume. Considering race and ethnicity as sociological rather than biological constructs, this study was built on minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs) to test if [...] Read more.
Considerable research has suggested that low socioeconomic status (SES) negatively influences brain structure, including but not limited to decreased amygdala volume. Considering race and ethnicity as sociological rather than biological constructs, this study was built on minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs) to test if the effects of family SES on the total amygdala volume is weaker for black and Latino children than white and non-Latino children. We borrowed data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a national multi-center brain imaging investigation of childhood brain development in the US. The total sample was 9380 9–10-year-old children. The independent variables were subjective family SES and parental education. The primary outcome was total amygdala volume. High subjective SES and parental education were independently associated with larger total amygdala size. The association between high subjective SES and larger total amygdala volume was less pronounced for black and Latino children than white and non-Latino children. For American children, family SES has unequal effects on amygdala size and function, a pattern that is consistent with MDRs. This result suggests that SES loses some of its expected effects for racial and ethnic minority families. Full article
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