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Surgeries, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 11 articles

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Article
Emergency Surgery in the Elderly: Could Laparoscopy Be Useful in Frailty? A Single-Center Prospective 2-Year Follow-Up in 120 Consecutive Patients
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 119-127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010011 - 14 Mar 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Background: the general population is aging across the world. Therefore, even surgical interventions in the elderly—in particular those involving emergency surgical admissions—are becoming more frequent. The elderly population is often frail (in multiple physiological systems, this is often defined as age-related cumulative decline). [...] Read more.
Background: the general population is aging across the world. Therefore, even surgical interventions in the elderly—in particular those involving emergency surgical admissions—are becoming more frequent. The elderly population is often frail (in multiple physiological systems, this is often defined as age-related cumulative decline). This study involved a 2-year follow-up evaluation of frail elderly patients treated with urgent surgical intervention at Santa Maria Regina della Misericordia Hospital, General Surgery Department, in Adria (Italy). Method: a prospective, single-center, 2-year follow-up study of 120 patients >65 years old, treated at our department for surgical abdominal emergencies. We considered co-morbidities (ASA—American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System—score), type of surgery (laparoscopy, laparotomy or converted), frailty score, mortality, and complications at 30 days and at 2 years. Conclusions: 70 (58.4%) patients had laparoscopy, 49 (40.8) had laparotomy, and in 1 (0.8%) case, surgery was converted from laparoscopy to laparotomy. Mortality strictly depends on the type of surgery (laparotomy vs. laparoscopy), complications during recovery, and a lower Fried frailty criteria score, on average. The long-term follow-up can be a useful tool to highlight a safer surgical approach, such as laparoscopy, in frail elderly patients. We consider the laparoscopic approach feasible in emergency situations, with similar or better outcomes than laparotomy, especially in frail elderly patients. Full article
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Case Report
Successful Treatment of Embolic Aortic Valve Endocarditis in a Patient Affected by COVID-19 Pneumonia
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 113-118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010010 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 541
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has required reorganization of the cardiac surgery system in the Italian region of Lombardy during early 2020. As a consequence, the hub-and-spoke (H&S) model was introduced to manage emergent/urgent cardiac surgery cases. In this challenging scenario, in which thousands of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has required reorganization of the cardiac surgery system in the Italian region of Lombardy during early 2020. As a consequence, the hub-and-spoke (H&S) model was introduced to manage emergent/urgent cardiac surgery cases. In this challenging scenario, in which thousands of people were affected by the novel coronavirus, we present the case of a successful treatment of a middle-aged patient affected by both COVID-19 pneumonia and subacute aortic endocarditis. Learning objective: How to treat endocarditis during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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Case Report
Intralobar Pulmonary Sequestration with Anomalous Artery Arising from the Celiac Trunk
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 105-112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010009 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Pulmonary saequestration is a rare congenital malformation characterized by a dysplastic portion of lung parenchyma supplied by an anomalous artery originating from the aorta or its branches. The worldwide incidence of pulmonary sequestration among all congenital lung malformations in children ranges from 1.5% [...] Read more.
Pulmonary saequestration is a rare congenital malformation characterized by a dysplastic portion of lung parenchyma supplied by an anomalous artery originating from the aorta or its branches. The worldwide incidence of pulmonary sequestration among all congenital lung malformations in children ranges from 1.5% to 6.4%. There are two main types of pulmonary sequestration according to the localization of the malformation, i.e., intrapulmonary sequestration (dysplastic tissue located inside a lobe of the normal lung) and extrapulmonary sequestration. Our case presentation aims to make physicians aware of this rare anomaly which may be difficult to diagnose because of its oligosymptomatic course prior to first presentation. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl who suffered from a second episode of prolonged pneumonia of the left lower lobe. Contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography (CT) scan of the thoraco-abdominal segment of the aorta and its branches revealed intrapulmonary sequestration localized at the left lower lobe of the lung. The intrapulmonary sequester was perfused by a large artery arising from the celiac trunk. The girl underwent open surgery with ligation of the anomalous feeding artery and atypical pulmonary resection of the affected area of the left lower lobe. Postoperatively, the child recovered without any complications. Full article
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Article
Towards Tissue-Specific Stem Cell Therapy for the Intervertebral Disc: PPARδ Agonist Increases the Yield of Human Nucleus Pulposus Progenitor Cells in Expansion
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 92-104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010008 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
(1) Background: Low back pain (LBP) is often associated with intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Autochthonous progenitor cells isolated from the center, i.e., the nucleus pulposus, of the IVD (so-called nucleus pulposus progenitor cells (NPPCs)) could be a future cell source for therapy. The [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Low back pain (LBP) is often associated with intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Autochthonous progenitor cells isolated from the center, i.e., the nucleus pulposus, of the IVD (so-called nucleus pulposus progenitor cells (NPPCs)) could be a future cell source for therapy. The NPPCs were also identified to be positive for the angiopoietin-1 receptor (Tie2). Similar to hematopoietic stem cells, Tie2 might be involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) agonist-induced self-renewal regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a PPARδ agonist (GW501516) increases the Tie2+ NPPCs’ yield within the heterogeneous nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) population. (2) Methods: Primary NPCs were treated with 10 µM of GW501516 for eight days. Mitochondrial mass was determined by microscopy, using mitotracker red dye, and the relative gene expression was quantified by qPCR, using extracellular matrix and mitophagy-related genes. (3) The NPC’s group treated with the PPARδ agonist showed a significant increase of the Tie2+ NPCs yield from ~7% in passage 1 to ~50% in passage two, compared to the NPCs vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, no significant differences were found among treatment and control, using qPCR and mitotracker deep red. (4) Conclusion: PPARδ agonist could help to increase the Tie2+ NPCs yield during NPC expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches to Tissue Engineering for Musculoskeletal Repair)
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Article
Extracellular Vesicles in Autologous Cell Salvaged Blood in Orthopedic Surgery
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 84-91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010007 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
(1) Background: Cell salvage is highly recommended in orthopedic surgery to avoid allogeneic transfusions. Preparational steps during cell salvage may induce extracellular vesicle (EV) formation with potential thrombogenic activity. The purpose of our study was to assess the appearance of EVs at retransfusion. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Cell salvage is highly recommended in orthopedic surgery to avoid allogeneic transfusions. Preparational steps during cell salvage may induce extracellular vesicle (EV) formation with potential thrombogenic activity. The purpose of our study was to assess the appearance of EVs at retransfusion. (2) Methods: After ethics committee approval and informed consent, blood was withdrawn from the autotransfusion system (Xtra, Sorin, Germany) of 23 patients undergoing joint arthroplasty. EVs were assessed by flow cytometry in two times centrifugated samples. EVs were stained with specific antibodies against cellular origins from platelets (CD41), myeloid cells (CD15), monocytes (CD14), and erythrocytes (CD235a). The measured events/µL in the flow cytometer were corrected to the number of EVs in the retransfusate. (3) Results: We measured low event rates of EVs from platelets and myeloid origin (<1 event/µL) and from monocytic origin (<2 events/µL). Mean event rates of 17,042 events/µL (range 12–81,164 events/µL) were found for EVs from red blood cells. (4) Conclusion: Retransfusate contains negligible amounts of potentially thrombogenic EVs from platelet and monocytic origin. Frequent EVs from erythrocytes may indicate red blood cell destruction and/or activation during autologous cell salvage. Further research is needed to investigate the clinical relevance of EVs from salvaged red blood cells. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Surgeries in 2020
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010006 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Surgeries maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Review
Tissue Engineering in Musculoskeletal Tissue: A Review of the Literature
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 58-82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010005 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 536
Abstract
Tissue engineering refers to the attempt to create functional human tissue from cells in a laboratory. This is a field that uses living cells, biocompatible materials, suitable biochemical and physical factors, and their combinations to create tissue-like structures. To date, no tissue engineered [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering refers to the attempt to create functional human tissue from cells in a laboratory. This is a field that uses living cells, biocompatible materials, suitable biochemical and physical factors, and their combinations to create tissue-like structures. To date, no tissue engineered skeletal muscle implants have been developed for clinical use, but they may represent a valid alternative for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss in the near future. Herein, we reviewed the literature and showed different techniques to produce synthetic tissues with the same architectural, structural and functional properties as native tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches to Tissue Engineering for Musculoskeletal Repair)
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Article
Ionizing Radiation Mediates Dose Dependent Effects Affecting the Healing Kinetics of Wounds Created on Acute and Late Irradiated Skin
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 35-57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010004 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Radiotherapy for cancer treatment is often associated with skin damage that can lead to incapacitating hard-to-heal wounds. No permanent curative treatment has been identified for radiodermatitis. This study provides a detailed characterization of the dose-dependent impact of ionizing radiation on skin cells (45, [...] Read more.
Radiotherapy for cancer treatment is often associated with skin damage that can lead to incapacitating hard-to-heal wounds. No permanent curative treatment has been identified for radiodermatitis. This study provides a detailed characterization of the dose-dependent impact of ionizing radiation on skin cells (45, 60, or 80 grays). We evaluated both early and late effects on murine dorsal skin with a focus on the healing process after two types of surgical challenge. The irradiated skin showed moderate to severe damage increasing with the dose. Four weeks after irradiation, the epidermis featured increased proliferation status while the dermis was hypovascular with abundant α-SMA intracellular expression. Excisional wounds created on these tissues exhibited delayed global wound closure. To assess potential long-lasting side effects of irradiation, radiodermatitis features were followed until macroscopic healing was notable (over 8 to 22 weeks depending on the dose), at which time incisional wounds were made. Severity scores and biomechanical analyses of the scar tissues revealed that seemingly healed irradiated skin still displayed altered functionality. Our detailed investigation of both the acute and chronic repercussions of radiotherapy on skin healing provides a relevant new in vivo model that will instruct future studies evaluating the efficacy of new treatments for radiodermatitis. Full article
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Article
Perioperative Complications after Parotidectomy Using a Standardized Grading Scale Classification System
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 20-34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010003 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Perioperative complications after parotidectomy are poorly studied and have a potential impact on hospitalization stay. The Clavien–Dindo classification of postoperative complications used in visceral surgery allows a recording of all complications, including a grading scale related to the severity of complication. The cohort [...] Read more.
Perioperative complications after parotidectomy are poorly studied and have a potential impact on hospitalization stay. The Clavien–Dindo classification of postoperative complications used in visceral surgery allows a recording of all complications, including a grading scale related to the severity of complication. The cohort analyzed for perioperative complications is composed of 436 parotidectomies classified into three types, four groups, and three classes, depending on extent of parotid resection, inclusion of additional procedures, and pathology, respectively. Using the Clavien–Dindo classification, complications were reported in 77% of the interventions. In 438 complications, 430 (98.2%) were classified as minor (332 grade I and 98 grade II), and 8 (1.8%) were classified as major (grade III). Independent variables affecting the risk of perioperative complications were duration of surgery (odds ratio = 1.007, p-value = 0.029) and extent of parotidectomy (odds ratio = 4.043, p-value = 0.007). Total/subtotal parotidectomy was associated with an increased risk of grade II-III complications (odds ratio = 2.866 (95% CI: 1.307–6.283), p-value = 0.009). Median hospital stay increased moderately in patients with complications. Use of Clavien–Dindo classification shows that parotidectomy is followed by a higher rate of perioperative complications than usually reported. Almost all complications are minor and have limited consequence on hospital stay. Full article
Article
Evaluation of an Algorithm for Testis-Sparing Surgery in Boys with Testicular Tumors: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 9-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2010002 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Aim: This study reports surgical treatment and its outcome for boys with a testicular tumor, in order to analyze the considerations of testis-sparing surgery (TSS) and investigate whether, in retrospect, treatment was according to a recently developed algorithm. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed boys [...] Read more.
Aim: This study reports surgical treatment and its outcome for boys with a testicular tumor, in order to analyze the considerations of testis-sparing surgery (TSS) and investigate whether, in retrospect, treatment was according to a recently developed algorithm. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed boys with testicular tumors who underwent surgical treatment between January 2000 and June 2020 at the Wilhelmina’s Children’s Hospital and the Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, The Netherlands. Medical records were searched for clinical characteristics and outcome. Results: We identified 31 boys (median age = 5.5 years) with a testicular tumor, 26 germ cell tumors (GCTs), four sex cord-stromal tumors, and one gonadoblastoma. Seventeen boys (median age = 1.5 years) had malignant and 14 (median age = 3.6 years) had benign tumors. Four boys with benign GCTs were treated with TSS, 25 with radical inguinal orchiectomy (RIO), and 2 with scrotal orchiectomy. No recurrence or testicular atrophy was reported. All boys with benign testicular tumors were treated as suggested by the algorithm, except for one boy treated with RIO. Conclusion: Retrospective analysis of surgical treatment of prepubertal boys with benign testicular tumors showed that TSS appears to be safe, and should be considered based on clinicoradiological data, in line with our algorithm. Full article
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Communication
Variability in Anesthesia Models of Care in Cardiac Surgery
Surgeries 2021, 2(1), 1-8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2010001 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
The operating room in a cardiothoracic surgical case is a complex environment, with multiple handoffs often required by staffing changes, and can be variable from program to program. This study was done to characterize what types of practitioners provide anesthesia during cardiac operations [...] Read more.
The operating room in a cardiothoracic surgical case is a complex environment, with multiple handoffs often required by staffing changes, and can be variable from program to program. This study was done to characterize what types of practitioners provide anesthesia during cardiac operations to determine the variability in this aspect of care. A survey was sent out via a list serve of members of the cardiac surgical team. Responses from 40 programs from a variety of countries showed variability across every dimension requested of the cardiac anesthesia team. Given that anesthesia is proven to have an influence on the outcome of cardiac procedures, this study indicates the opportunity to further study how this variability influences outcomes and to identify best practices. Full article
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