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Eng, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The results of the study suggest that fecal waste flow diagrams and service delivery scorecards are effective tools in the initial and rapid assessment of septage management systems. The image shows a fecal waste flow diagram of San Fernando City and the service delivery scorecard of Pasig City. View this paper.
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Article
The VIT Transform Approach to Discrete-Time Signals and Linear Time-Varying Systems
Eng 2021, 2(1), 99-125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/eng2010008 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
A transform approach based on a variable initial time (VIT) formulation is developed for discrete-time signals and linear time-varying discrete-time systems or digital filters. The VIT transform is a formal power series in z1, which converts functions given by linear time-varying difference equations into left polynomial fractions with variable coefficients, and with initial conditions incorporated into the framework. It is shown that the transform satisfies a number of properties that are analogous to those of the ordinary z-transform, and that it is possible to do scaling of zi by time functions, which results in left-fraction forms for the transform of a large class of functions including sinusoids with general time-varying amplitudes and frequencies. Using the extended right Euclidean algorithm in a skew polynomial ring with time-varying coefficients, it is shown that a sum of left polynomial fractions can be written as a single fraction, which results in linear time-varying recursions for the inverse transform of the combined fraction. The extraction of a first-order term from a given polynomial fraction is carried out in terms of the evaluation of zi at time functions. In the application to linear time-varying systems, it is proved that the VIT transform of the system output is equal to the product of the VIT transform of the input and the VIT transform of the unit-pulse response function. For systems given by a time-varying moving average or an autoregressive model, the transform framework is used to determine the steady-state output response resulting from various signal inputs such as the step and cosine functions. Full article
Article
An Iterative Hybrid Algorithm for Roots of Non-Linear Equations
Eng 2021, 2(1), 80-98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/eng2010007 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Finding the roots of non-linear and transcendental equations is an important problem in engineering sciences. In general, such problems do not have an analytic solution; the researchers resort to numerical techniques for exploring. We design and implement a three-way hybrid algorithm that is [...] Read more.
Finding the roots of non-linear and transcendental equations is an important problem in engineering sciences. In general, such problems do not have an analytic solution; the researchers resort to numerical techniques for exploring. We design and implement a three-way hybrid algorithm that is a blend of the Newton–Raphson algorithm and a two-way blended algorithm (blend of two methods, Bisection and False Position). The hybrid algorithm is a new single pass iterative approach. The method takes advantage of the best in three algorithms in each iteration to estimate an approximate value closer to the root. We show that the new algorithm outperforms the Bisection, Regula Falsi, Newton–Raphson, quadrature based, undetermined coefficients based, and decomposition-based algorithms. The new hybrid root finding algorithm is guaranteed to converge. The experimental results and empirical evidence show that the complexity of the hybrid algorithm is far less than that of other algorithms. Several functions cited in the literature are used as benchmarks to compare and confirm the simplicity, efficiency, and performance of the proposed method. Full article
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Article
Finite Element Framework for Efficient Design of Three Dimensional Multicomponent Composite Helicopter Rotor Blade System
Eng 2021, 2(1), 69-79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/eng2010006 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 567
Abstract
In the present study, a three-dimensional finite element framework has been developed to model a full-scale multilaminate composite helicopter rotor blade. Tip deformation and stress behavior have been analyzed for external aerodynamic loading conditions and compared with the Abaqus FEA model. Furthermore, different [...] Read more.
In the present study, a three-dimensional finite element framework has been developed to model a full-scale multilaminate composite helicopter rotor blade. Tip deformation and stress behavior have been analyzed for external aerodynamic loading conditions and compared with the Abaqus FEA model. Furthermore, different parametric studies of geometric design parameters of composite laminates are studied in order to minimize tip deformation and maximize the overall efficiency of the helicopter blade. It is found that these parameters significantly influence the tip deformation characteristic and can be judiciously chosen for the efficient design of the rotor blade system. Full article
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Article
Kinetic Modelling of Biodegradability Data of Commercial Polymers Obtained under Aerobic Composting Conditions
Eng 2021, 2(1), 54-68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/eng2010005 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Methods to treat kinetic data for the biodegradation of different plastic materials are comparatively discussed. Different samples of commercial formulates were tested for aerobic biodegradation in compost, following the standard ISO14855. Starting from the raw data, the conversion vs. time entries were elaborated [...] Read more.
Methods to treat kinetic data for the biodegradation of different plastic materials are comparatively discussed. Different samples of commercial formulates were tested for aerobic biodegradation in compost, following the standard ISO14855. Starting from the raw data, the conversion vs. time entries were elaborated using relatively simple kinetic models, such as integrated kinetic equations of zero, first and second order, through the Wilkinson model, or using a Michaelis Menten approach, which was previously reported in the literature. The results were validated against the experimental data and allowed for computation of the time for half degradation of the substrate and, by extrapolation, estimation of the final biodegradation time for all the materials tested. In particular, the Michaelis Menten approach fails in describing all the reported kinetics as well the zeroth- and second-order kinetics. The biodegradation pattern of one sample was described in detail through a simple first-order kinetics. By contrast, other substrates followed a more complex pathway, with rapid partial degradation, subsequently slowing. Therefore, a more conservative kinetic interpolation was needed. The different possible patterns are discussed, with a guide to the application of the most suitable kinetic model. Full article
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Article
Trendline and Monthly Variations of Nitrate in Water Supply Wells in Upper Egypt
Eng 2021, 2(1), 43-53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/eng2010004 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Safe drinking water is among the most important environmental as well as health challenges facing Egypt. Groundwater from the aquifer of the Nile valley in Upper Egypt accounts for about 40% of the overall source of drinking water. Nearly, all rural residents rely [...] Read more.
Safe drinking water is among the most important environmental as well as health challenges facing Egypt. Groundwater from the aquifer of the Nile valley in Upper Egypt accounts for about 40% of the overall source of drinking water. Nearly, all rural residents rely on groundwater as the source of drinking water. Irrigation water is the main source of groundwater recharge in Nile Valley. Moreover, nitrate fertilizer utilization in Egypt has risen significantly due to the requirement for further agricultural production. Nitrate levels higher than the permissible limit (45 mg/L) for drinking water have been related to health issues. To determine the effect of agrochemical nitrate on the health of pumping water, municipal water wellfields established in Upper Egypt have been examined. Pumped water from those municipal wells (60 m depth and 2000 m3/day gross pumping rate) was evaluated from 2000 to 2018 to accomplish this objective. Monthly analysis of the quality of groundwater, in particular nitrate, has been conducted. Sulfate and nitrate concentrations as well as other consistency metrics were assessed. Water sampling findings show that the water already comes under the drinking-water limits. Nevertheless, increased nitrate and sulfate values are found beyond naturally existing levels in the aquifer. Consequently, to determine the possible future likelihood of nitrate contamination in such municipal wells, the trendline of nitrate level has been used. The observations suggest that the intensive utilization of nitrogen fertilizer in Upper Egypt in the last 30 years would endanger the quality of the groundwater supply. Resultantly, the usage of nitrogen fertilizers in Upper Egypt must be regulated and continuous groundwater monitoring must be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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Article
Limitations of Modern Diagnostic and Prognostic Systems for a Hydraulic Unit’s Health
by
Eng 2021, 2(1), 27-42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/eng2010003 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
Modern diagnostic systems for the hydraulic unit’s health play an important role in ensuring the reliability and safety of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP). However, they cannot provide timely detection of such dangerous operational defects as fatigue cracks. This article reflects two main [...] Read more.
Modern diagnostic systems for the hydraulic unit’s health play an important role in ensuring the reliability and safety of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP). However, they cannot provide timely detection of such dangerous operational defects as fatigue cracks. This article reflects two main reasons for this problem. The first one is a high level of the individuality of hydraulic units, which does not allow the effective use of statistical methods of information processing, including BIG DATA and MACHINE LEARNING technologies. The second is the fundamental impossibility to identify cracks in some key components of hydraulic units only on the basis of data analysis from a standard diagnostic system usually used at the HPP. Developed computational studies on the example of Francis turbines confirmed this. It is proposed to supplement the functionality of standard diagnostic systems with a prognostic block for an individual analytical forecast of the unit’s residual lifetime based on the calculated assessment of fatigue strength. This article presents the developed conceptual diagram and the demonstration version of the proposed analytical predictive system. The comparison of the standard vibration diagnostic system and the proposed solution as a tool for the early detection of cracks in a Francis turbine runner shows some advantages of the proposed approach. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Analysis of Septage Management in Five Cities in the Philippines
Eng 2021, 2(1), 12-26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/eng2010002 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 882
Abstract
This study assessed and compared septage management systems in Baliwag, Calamba, Muntinlupa, Pasig, and San Fernando, the Philippines, using fecal waste flow diagrams and service delivery scorecards. According to the fecal waste flow diagrams, San Fernando is the most successful in preventing its [...] Read more.
This study assessed and compared septage management systems in Baliwag, Calamba, Muntinlupa, Pasig, and San Fernando, the Philippines, using fecal waste flow diagrams and service delivery scorecards. According to the fecal waste flow diagrams, San Fernando is the most successful in preventing its environment’s pollution. It is followed by Baliwag, Muntinlupa, and Pasig. In Calamba, all of the fecal waste is disposed of to the environment. According to the scorecards, Pasig has the most efficient septage management service, followed by San Fernando, Baliwag, Muntinlupa, and Calamba. Among the five areas, San Fernando can be considered to have the most efficient septage management system as it had the best fecal waste flow diagram and second highest ratings in the service delivery scorecard. It might have been an advantage that the city itself is managing the whole system—from implementing rules for septic tank plans, to the collection, treatment, and disposal of septage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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Review
Innovative Techniques in the Context of Actions for Flood Risk Management: A Review
Eng 2021, 2(1), 1-11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/eng2010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
The general purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview of various flood protection strategies because flooding is becoming more frequent and is affecting more areas, displacing people, and increasing fatalities around the world. The concern surrounding climate change resulting in [...] Read more.
The general purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview of various flood protection strategies because flooding is becoming more frequent and is affecting more areas, displacing people, and increasing fatalities around the world. The concern surrounding climate change resulting in sea level rise, increasingly frequent storm events, and the need for adaptive actions to better control urban storm water runoff motivates the completion of this paper. Understanding the impact of climate change aside from dangerous weather conditions essential for designing effective mitigation strategies, but first, there needs to be a clear and strong understanding of the effects of extreme events. This review represents engineered storm water practices that are adaptive, in combination with the non-structural measures such as urban planning, will help reduce flood impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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