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Polysaccharides, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This work can be applied to to preparing and chemically activating powdered cellulose, a process that traditionally occurs through the wet process, by co-milling powdered cellulose with potassium hydroxide, in a completely dry condition and at room temperature. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility to combine it with chemical treatments, thus allowing one to obtain desired products with minimal effort. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Characterization of Powdered Cellulose Activated by Potassium Hydroxide in Dry Condition Through Ball Milling
Polysaccharides 2020, 1(1), 80-89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides1010006 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The surface chemical compositions of powdered cellulose have been characterized utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) techniques. Powdered cellulose was prepared by milling of bleached softwood pulp residues through a lab-scale planetary ball mill. Here we [...] Read more.
The surface chemical compositions of powdered cellulose have been characterized utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) techniques. Powdered cellulose was prepared by milling of bleached softwood pulp residues through a lab-scale planetary ball mill. Here we show how milling a mixture of the powdered cellulose with potassium hydroxide determines the surface chemical compositions of the obtained powdered cellulose, in a completely dry condition. The XPS analysis indicated the presence of new carbon and oxygen atoms as C4, C5, and O3. In turn, the FTIR analysis showed the stretching vibrations of the carbon–carbon double bond. The results suggest the formation of active oxygenated species on powdered cellulose surfaces. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biosourced Polysaccharide-Based Superabsorbents
Polysaccharides 2020, 1(1), 51-79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides1010005 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 547
Abstract
In the last decades, many studies have been conducted on new materials to meet a growing industrial demand and to move scientific research forward. Superabsorbents are good examples of materials that have generated special attention in many fields for their ability to absorb [...] Read more.
In the last decades, many studies have been conducted on new materials to meet a growing industrial demand and to move scientific research forward. Superabsorbents are good examples of materials that have generated special attention in many fields for their ability to absorb and retain water up to 1000 times of their dry weight. They found many applications in hygiene products and other products, for a fast growing market of USD 9.58 Billion in 2019. Most of them are composed of synthetic polymers, which are often not environmentally friendly. Therefore, natural superabsorbents and particularly those based on polysaccharides have received a recent increased interest for their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and renewability. This review focuses on polysaccharide-based superabsorbents, on their properties, synthesis methods, and characterization. Their potential applications in many fields, such as biomedical and hygiene, agriculture, water treatment, and the building sector, are also reported with an interest in products already marketed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle
GC-MS-Based Metabolomics Analysis of Prawn Shell Waste Co-Fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis
Polysaccharides 2020, 1(1), 31-50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides1010004 - 29 Sep 2020
Viewed by 670
Abstract
GC-MS-based metabolomics were used to investigate metabolic changes in prawn shell waste during fermentation. Microbial strains Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis were co-fermented in a shake flask comprising of 5% (w/v) prawn shell waste and 20% (w/v) glucose as [...] Read more.
GC-MS-based metabolomics were used to investigate metabolic changes in prawn shell waste during fermentation. Microbial strains Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis were co-fermented in a shake flask comprising of 5% (w/v) prawn shell waste and 20% (w/v) glucose as a carbon source. Analysis of the prawn shell waste fermentation showed a total of 376 metabolites detected in the culture supernatant, including 14 amino acids, 106 organic acids, and 90 antimicrobial molecules. Results show that the liquid fraction of the co-fermentation is promising for harvesting valuable metabolites for probiotics application. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Derivatives in Plant Protection against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses and in Recovery of Contaminated Soil and Water
Polysaccharides 2020, 1(1), 21-30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides1010003 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
Biotic, abiotic stresses and their unpredictable combinations severely reduce plant growth and crop yield worldwide. The different chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, phytoregulators) so far used to enhance crop tolerance to multistress have a great environmental impact. In the search of more eco-friendly systems to [...] Read more.
Biotic, abiotic stresses and their unpredictable combinations severely reduce plant growth and crop yield worldwide. The different chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, phytoregulators) so far used to enhance crop tolerance to multistress have a great environmental impact. In the search of more eco-friendly systems to manage plant stresses, chitin, a polysaccharide polymer composed of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucosamine and its deacetylated derivative chitosan appear as promising tools to solve this problem. In fact, these molecules, easily obtainable from crustacean shells and from the cell wall of many fungi, are non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible and able to stimulate plant productivity and to protect crops against pathogens. In addition, chitin and chitosan can act as bioadsorbents for remediation of contaminated soil and water. In this review we summarize recent results obtained using chitin- and chitosan-based derivatives in plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses and in recovery of contaminated soil and water. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Different Extraction Conditions on the Physical Properties, Conformation and Branching of Pectins Extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus
Polysaccharides 2020, 1(1), 3-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides1010002 - 08 Sep 2020
Viewed by 765
Abstract
The extraction of pectin involves the physico-chemical hydrolysis and solubilisation of pectic polymers from plant tissues under the influence of several processing parameters. In this study, an experimental design approach was used to examine the effects of extraction pH, time and temperature on [...] Read more.
The extraction of pectin involves the physico-chemical hydrolysis and solubilisation of pectic polymers from plant tissues under the influence of several processing parameters. In this study, an experimental design approach was used to examine the effects of extraction pH, time and temperature on the pectins extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus. Knowledge of physical properties (intrinsic viscosity and molar mass), dilute solution conformation (persistence length and mass per unit length), together with chemical composition, was then used to propose a new method, which can estimate the length and number of branches on the pectin RG-I region. The results show that physical properties, conformation and the length and number of branches are sensitive to extraction conditions. The fitting of regression equations relating length and number of branches on the pectin RG-I region to extraction conditions can, therefore, lead to tailor-made pectins with specific properties for specific applications. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Polysaccharides—An Interdisciplinary Open Access Journal for a Sustainable and Advanced Community
Polysaccharides 2020, 1(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides1010001 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The journal “Polysaccharides” is a new open access journal which has attracted an ambitious editorial team, active in different areas of biopolymer—i [...] Full article
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