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Polysaccharides, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 13 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The manufacture of regenerated cellulosic (RC) fibers from recycled sources of cellulose is deemed a sustainable approach to enabling a more circular textile economy. This study demonstrated how RC fibers were wet spun from cotton pulp that was recycled from cotton T-shirts. The activated cellulose pulp was dissolved in lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc), and modified with 10% (weight/weight, w/w) GA (glucaric acid) to strengthen the fibers. The total draw ratio of cellulosic fibers increased from 2.5x to 6.5x with the addition of GA. The highest modulus of 664 cN/dtex and tenacity of 9.7 cN/dtex were reported for GA-modified fiber compared to pristine fibers. Therefore, this approach can strengthen RC fibers from recycled cotton and textile waste. View this paper.
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Article
Effect of Extrusion on the Crystalline Structure of Starch during RS5 Formation
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 187-201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010013 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 538
Abstract
Amylose is well known to be organized helically with six glucose per turn, allowing it to form complexes with various ligands. This interaction can be affected by the type of crystalline structure present in the starch sources. This study evaluated the effect of [...] Read more.
Amylose is well known to be organized helically with six glucose per turn, allowing it to form complexes with various ligands. This interaction can be affected by the type of crystalline structure present in the starch sources. This study evaluated the effect of extrusion on the crystalline structure of starch during RS5 formation. Rice and potato starches were extruded at 100 °C and 15 rpm with 5% and 10% oleic acid (OA), then the physical, thermal, paste properties, and resistant starch content (RS) were evaluated. Potato starch extruded with 10% OA showed granules embedded in a gelatinized starch matrix. The X-ray revealed that rice (orthorhombic) and potato (hexagonal) structures remain unchanged even after extrusion. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) evidenced the formation of type IIa amylose-lipid complexes in OA treatments, where potato extruded with 10% OA had the highest enthalpy (0.9 J/g). Moreover, the extruded potato showed the highest pasting temperature (87.19 °C), supporting the complex formation. The RS was reduced from 15.8 (isolated) to 4.14 mg/100 mg (extruded 10% OA) in rice. For potato, RS decreased from 17 to 13 mg/100 mg (isolated and extruded 10% OA). Overall, these findings suggest a tendency in potato starch (ortho-rhombic) to interact with OA during the extrusion process, promoting a crystalline lamellae growth when extruded with 10% OA; therefore, changing their properties. Full article
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Review
A Review on Recent Progress of Glycan-Based Surfactant Micelles as Nanoreactor Systems for Chemical Synthesis Applications
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 168-186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010012 - 07 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
The nanoreactor concept and its application as a modality to carry out chemical reactions in confined and compartmentalized structures continues to receive increasing attention. Micelle-based nanoreactors derived from various classes of surfactant demonstrate outstanding potential for chemical synthesis. Polysaccharide (glycan-based) surfactants are an [...] Read more.
The nanoreactor concept and its application as a modality to carry out chemical reactions in confined and compartmentalized structures continues to receive increasing attention. Micelle-based nanoreactors derived from various classes of surfactant demonstrate outstanding potential for chemical synthesis. Polysaccharide (glycan-based) surfactants are an emerging class of biodegradable, non-toxic, and sustainable alternatives over conventional surfactant systems. The unique structure of glycan-based surfactants and their micellar structures provide a nanoenvironment that differs from that of the bulk solution, and supported by chemical reactions with uniquely different reaction rates and mechanisms. In this review, the aggregation of glycan-based surfactants to afford micelles and their utility for the synthesis of selected classes of reactions by the nanoreactor technique is discussed. Glycan-based surfactants are ecofriendly and promising surfactants over conventional synthetic analogues. This contribution aims to highlight recent developments in the field of glycan-based surfactants that are relevant to nanoreactors, along with future opportunities for research. In turn, coverage of research for glycan-based surfactants in nanoreactor assemblies with tailored volume and functionality is anticipated to motivate advanced research for the synthesis of diverse chemical species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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Review
Biopolymer Matrices Based on Chitosan and Fibroin: A Review Focused on Methods for Studying Surface Properties
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 154-167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010011 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
For the creation of tissue-engineered structures based on natural biopolymers with the necessary chemical, physical, adhesive, morphological, and regenerative properties, biocompatible materials based on polysaccharides and proteins are used. This work is devoted to a problem of the technology of polymeric materials for [...] Read more.
For the creation of tissue-engineered structures based on natural biopolymers with the necessary chemical, physical, adhesive, morphological, and regenerative properties, biocompatible materials based on polysaccharides and proteins are used. This work is devoted to a problem of the technology of polymeric materials for biomedical purposes: the creation of biopolymer tissue engineering matrix and the development of a methodology for studying morphology and functional properties of their surface to establish the prospects for using the material for contact with living objects. The conditions for the formation of scaffolds based on composite materials of chitosan and fibroin determine the structure of the material, the thickness and orientation of molecular layers, the surface morphology, and other parameters that affect cell adhesion and growth. The analysis of studies of the morphology and properties of the surface of biopolymer matrices obtained using different methods of molding from solutions of chitosan and fibroin is carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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Article
Strengthening Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Sourced from Recycled Cotton T-Shirt Using Glucaric Acid for Antiplasticization
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 138-153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010010 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 984
Abstract
The recycling of cellulose from cotton textiles would minimize the use of virgin crop fibers, but recycled polymers are generally inferior in mechanical performance to those made from virgin resins. This challenge prompted the investigation of biobased additives that were capable of improving [...] Read more.
The recycling of cellulose from cotton textiles would minimize the use of virgin crop fibers, but recycled polymers are generally inferior in mechanical performance to those made from virgin resins. This challenge prompted the investigation of biobased additives that were capable of improving the mechanical properties of fibers by means of antiplasticizing additives. In this study, regenerated cellulose (RC) fibers were spun from cellulose found in cotton T-shirts, and fibers were mechanically strengthened with glucaric acid (GA), a nontoxic product of fermentation. The recycled pulp was activated using aqueous sodium hydroxide and then followed by acid neutralization, prior to the direct dissolution in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc) at 3 wt.% cellulose. At 10% (w/w) GA, the tensile modulus and strength of regenerated cellulose from recycled cotton fibers increased five-fold in contrast to neat fibers without GA. The highest modulus and tenacity values of 664 cN/dtex and of 9.7 cN/dtex were reported for RC fibers containing GA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Nano)cellulose: Extraction, Characterizations, Application)
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Article
Novel Capsular Polysaccharide from Lobochlamys segnis
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 121-137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010009 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 585
Abstract
In recent years there has been a significant effort from food, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries to discover and develop new natural ingredients. Microalgae have been recognised as potential sources of high value chemicals, with most attention focused upon antioxidants, pigments, and [...] Read more.
In recent years there has been a significant effort from food, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries to discover and develop new natural ingredients. Microalgae have been recognised as potential sources of high value chemicals, with most attention focused upon antioxidants, pigments, and specialty oils. An under-exploited group of biochemicals produced by microalgae are extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Lobochlamys segnis (formerly called Chlamydomonas segnis) was previously reported to produce a large amount of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) closely related to hyaluronan (HA) under stress conditions. In this work, the purified CPS was characterised and shown to have an average molecular mass (Mn) of about 3.7 MDa, and displayed a highly branched random coil structure unlike the simple repeating linear HA polysaccharide. Chemical analysis showed the presence of galactose, glucuronic acid, and glucose sugars confirming that the product has a different composition to that of HA. Mixotrophic growth and stress conditions were identified and improved upon with a pH control system using acetic acid solution to induce efficient production of CPS. Extraction and purification conditions were also identified exploiting the high Mn of the product. The CPS showed thickening properties and both significant antioxidant capacity and reducing power, which could have commercial applications. This is the first report on the characterization of this novel polysaccharide with non-Newtonian properties similar to HA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Polysaccharides)
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Article
Chitosan-Based Adhesive: Optimization of Tensile Shear Strength in Dry and Wet Conditions
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 110-120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010008 - 28 Feb 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Commercial adhesives present a high bond strength and water resistance, but they are considered non-healthier products. Chitosan can be considered as an interesting biosourced and biodegradable alternative, despite its low water resistance. Here, its wood bonding implementation and its tensile shear strength in [...] Read more.
Commercial adhesives present a high bond strength and water resistance, but they are considered non-healthier products. Chitosan can be considered as an interesting biosourced and biodegradable alternative, despite its low water resistance. Here, its wood bonding implementation and its tensile shear strength in dry and wet conditions were investigated depending on its structural characteristics. Firstly, the spread rate, open assembly time, drying pressure, drying temperature, and drying time have been determined for two chitosans of European pine double lap specimens. An adhesive solution spread rate of 1000 g·m−2, an open assembly time of 10 min, and a pressure temperature of 55 °C for 105 min led to a bond strength of 2.82 MPa. Secondly, a comparison between a high molecular weight/low deacetylation degree chitosan and a lower molecular weight/higher deacetylation degree chitosan was conducted. Tests were conducted with beech simple lap specimens in accordance with the implementation conditions and the conditioning treatments in wet and dry environments required for thermoplastic wood adhesive standards used in non-structural applications (EN 204 and EN 205). The results clearly revealed the dependence of adhesive properties and water resistance on the structural features of chitosans (molecular weight and deacetylation degree), explaining the heterogeneity of results published notably in this field. Full article
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Review
Biopolymeric Materials Used as Nonviral Vectors: A Review
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 100-109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010007 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types [...] Read more.
Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types of lipids and cationic polymers as promising nonviral vectors for DNA transfer. The present study aimed to carry out a systematic review on the use of biopolymeric materials as nonviral vectors. The methodology was carried out based on searches of scientific articles and applications for patents published or deposited from 2006 to 2020 in different databases for patents (EPO, USPTO, and INPI) and articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo). The results showed that there are some deposits of patents regarding the use of chitosan as a gene carrier. The 16 analyzed articles allowed us to infer that the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is limited due to the low diversity of biopolymers used for these purposes. It was also observed that the use of different materials as nonviral vectors is based on chemical structure modifications of the material, mainly by the addition of cationic groups. Thus, the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is still limited to only a few polysaccharide types, emphasizing the need for further studies involving the use of different biopolymers in processes of gene transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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Article
Hemostatic Dressings Made of Oxidized Bacterial Nanocellulose Membranes
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 80-99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010006 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 845
Abstract
Surgicel® (regenerated oxidized cellulose) is a bio-absorbable hemostatic material widely applied to prevent surgery-derived adhesions. Some critical issues have been reported associated with this biomaterial, which we aimed to overcome by producing bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) membranes with hemostatic activity, through electrochemical oxidation [...] Read more.
Surgicel® (regenerated oxidized cellulose) is a bio-absorbable hemostatic material widely applied to prevent surgery-derived adhesions. Some critical issues have been reported associated with this biomaterial, which we aimed to overcome by producing bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) membranes with hemostatic activity, through electrochemical oxidation using the tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical. Samples were characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEM, XRD and their degree of polymerization. The oxidation degree was evaluated by titration of the carboxyl groups and the hemostatic behavior by whole-blood-clotting assays. In vitro and in vivo biodegradability of oxidized BNC membranes were evaluated and compared with that of Surgicel®. The oxidation degree increased from 4% to 7% and up to 15%, corresponding to an applied charge of 400, 700 and 1200 Coulombs, respectively. The oxidized BNC preserved the crystallinity and the 3D nano-fibrillar network, and demonstrated hemostatic activity, although not as effective as that of Surgicel®. In vivo assays demonstrated that the oxidized membranes did not induce an inflammatory response, revealing a good biocompatibility. However, non-degraded oxidized BNC was still detected at the implantation site after 56 days. Full article
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Review
Didymo and Its Polysaccharide Stalks: Beneficial to the Environment or Not?
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 69-79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010005 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 984
Abstract
Didymosphenia geminata diatoms, or Didymo, was first found to be an invasive species that could have negative impacts on the environment due to the aggressive growth of its polysaccharide-based stalks. The stalks’ adhesive properties have prompted park officials to alert the general public [...] Read more.
Didymosphenia geminata diatoms, or Didymo, was first found to be an invasive species that could have negative impacts on the environment due to the aggressive growth of its polysaccharide-based stalks. The stalks’ adhesive properties have prompted park officials to alert the general public to limit further spread and contamination of this algae to other bodies of water. Although the negative effects of Didymo have been studied in the past, recent studies have demonstrated a potential positive side to this alga. One of the potential benefits includes the structural component of the polysaccharide stalks. The origin of the polysaccharides within stalks remains unknown; however, they can be useful in a waste management and agricultural setting. The primary purpose of this study was to describe both the harmful and beneficial nature of Didymo. Important outcomes include findings related to its application in various fields such as medicine and technology. These polysaccharides can be isolated and studied closely to produce efficient solar power cells and batteries. Though they may be harmful while uncontained in nature, they appear to be very useful in the technological and medical advancement of our society. Full article
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Article
Bioremediation Potential of Streptomyces sp. MOE6 for Toxic Metals and Oil
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 47-68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010004 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Toxic metal contamination has serious effects on human health. Crude oil that may contain toxic metals and oil spills can further contaminate the environment and lead to increased exposure. This being the case, we chose to study the bio-production of inexpensive, environmentally safe [...] Read more.
Toxic metal contamination has serious effects on human health. Crude oil that may contain toxic metals and oil spills can further contaminate the environment and lead to increased exposure. This being the case, we chose to study the bio-production of inexpensive, environmentally safe materials for remediation. Streptomyces sp. MOE6 is a Gram-positive, filamentous bacterium from soil that produces an extracellular polysaccharide (MOE6-EPS). A one-factor-at-a-time experiments showed that the maximum production of MOE6-EPS was achieved at 35 °C, pH 6, after nine days of incubation with soluble starch and yeast extract as carbon sources and the latter as the nitrogen source. We demonstrated that MOE6-EPS has the capacity to remove toxic metals such as Co(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II) and U(VI) and from solution either by chelation and/or reduction. Additionally, the bacterium was found to produce siderophores, which contribute to the removal of metals, specifically Fe(III). Additionally, purified MOE6-EPS showed emulsifying activities against various hydrophobic substances, including olive oil, corn oil, benzene, toluene and engine oil. These results indicate that EPS from Streptomyces sp. MOE6 may be useful to sequester toxic metals and oil in contaminated environments. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Inulin on the Physical and Textural Properties of Biscuits Containing Jet Milled Barley Flour
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 39-46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010003 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 351
Abstract
The quality properties of biscuits with partial replacement of sugar by inulin (at 0, 10, 20 and 30%) and wheat flour by barley flour (at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) were studied. A commercial and a jet milled finer barley flour were [...] Read more.
The quality properties of biscuits with partial replacement of sugar by inulin (at 0, 10, 20 and 30%) and wheat flour by barley flour (at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) were studied. A commercial and a jet milled finer barley flour were used. For all flour substitutions, elevated amounts of inulin led to increased weight and decreased spread ratio of the biscuits. Inulin biscuits, within the same flour composition, were softer than those with no inulin but inulin’s concentration was not statistically important. The incorporation of barley flour resulted in reduced lightness, more evident in the case of the finer barley flour. Inulin also affected the lightness of the biscuits. Phenolic content was affected by the presence of barley flour but no clear trend of inulin’s effect was detected. The interactions between barley substitution, inulin substitution and particle size of the barley flour were important for all studied properties, i.e., weight, spread ratio, hardness, total phenolic content and color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Polysaccharides)
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Review
Cyclodextrin Polymers and Cyclodextrin-Containing Polysaccharides for Water Remediation
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 16-38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010002 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
Chemical pollution of water has raised great concerns among citizens, lawmakers, and nearly all manufacturing industries. As the legislation addressing liquid effluents becomes more stringent, water companies are increasingly scrutinized for their environmental performance. In this context, emergent contaminants represent a major challenge, [...] Read more.
Chemical pollution of water has raised great concerns among citizens, lawmakers, and nearly all manufacturing industries. As the legislation addressing liquid effluents becomes more stringent, water companies are increasingly scrutinized for their environmental performance. In this context, emergent contaminants represent a major challenge, and the remediation of water bodies and wastewater demands alternative sorbent materials. One of the most promising adsorbing materials for micropolluted water environments involves cyclodextrin (CD) polymers and cyclodextrin-containing polysaccharides. Although cyclodextrins are water-soluble and, thus, unusable as adsorbents in aqueous media, they can be feasibly polymerized by using different crosslinkers such as epichlorohydrin, polycarboxylic acids, and glutaraldehyde. Likewise, with those coupling agents or after substituting hydroxyl groups with more reactive moieties, cyclodextrin units can be covalently attached to a pre-existing polysaccharide. In this direction, the functionalization of chitosan, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, and other carbohydrate polymers with CDs is vastly found in the literature. For the system containing CDs to be used for remediation purposes, there are benefits from a synergy that arises from (i) the ability of CD units to interact selectively with a broad spectrum of molecules, forming inclusion complexes and higher-order supramolecular assemblies, (ii) the functional groups of the crosslinker comonomers, (iii) the three-dimensional structure of the crosslinked network, and/or (iv) the intrinsic characteristics of the polysaccharide backbone. In view of the most recent contributions regarding CD-based copolymers and CD-containing polysaccharides, this review discusses their performance as adsorbents in micropolluted water environments, as well as their interaction patterns, addressing the influence of their structural and physicochemical properties and their functionalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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Review
Are Structurally Modified Galactomannan Derivatives Biologically Active?
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 1-15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polysaccharides2010001 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Galactomannans are versatile macromolecules with broad industrial potential. The influence of changes in the chemical structures and respective bioactivities of these polysaccharides have been extensively studied. The derivatives obtained by sulfation, complexation, and phosphorylation are the most studied biological properties in galactomannans. The [...] Read more.
Galactomannans are versatile macromolecules with broad industrial potential. The influence of changes in the chemical structures and respective bioactivities of these polysaccharides have been extensively studied. The derivatives obtained by sulfation, complexation, and phosphorylation are the most studied biological properties in galactomannans. The derivatives obtained have shown several pharmacological activities such as antiviral, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, chemopreventive, anticancer, antioxidant, chondroprotective, analgesic, immunomodulatory, and antileishmanial. Considering the relevance of these studies, we aim to provide an overview of studies that apply galactomannan modification or derivatization strategies to improve their properties for applications in the biomedical area. We identified the success of most modified galactomannans for pharmacological purposes. However, some studies found loss of bioactivity of the original polysaccharide after chemical changes to its original structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Polysaccharides)
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