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Women, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 5 articles

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Review
Changing the PrEP Narrative: A Call to Action to Increase PrEP Uptake among Women
Women 2021, 1(2), 120-127; https://doi.org/10.3390/women1020011 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Although the incidence of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has decreased in the past decade, in 2018 more than 7000 women with HIV were diagnosed in the United States (US). Globally, per recent reports, 48% of the new HIV infections were [...] Read more.
Although the incidence of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has decreased in the past decade, in 2018 more than 7000 women with HIV were diagnosed in the United States (US). Globally, per recent reports, 48% of the new HIV infections were among women. There is still no vaccine to prevent HIV transmission. However, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was approved in 2012 by the Food and Drug Administration, providing a powerful tool to block HIV infection and help prevent the subsequent development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The uptake of PrEP has been slow globally and among the most vulnerable populations in the US, even though the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended its use in high-risk populations, including women. Furthermore, women represent one-quarter of people living with HIV in the US; however, PrEP is underutilized in this group. Thus, it is imperative to make women’s voices heard through conducting more research, ensuring sufficient access to PrEP, and enhancing knowledge about PrEP as a viable prevention strategy for women. This article aims to promote women’s health by changing the narrative, providing key information on empowering women, and increasing the usage of PrEP. Full article
Article
Perception of and Motivation for Physical Activity among Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes
Women 2021, 1(2), 109-119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/women1020010 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
(1) Background: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This risk can be reduced with lifestyle interventions, including physical activity. However, studies have shown that many women with prior GDM are [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This risk can be reduced with lifestyle interventions, including physical activity. However, studies have shown that many women with prior GDM are not physically active. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivation for physical activity among women with prior GDM. (2) Methods: A qualitative study was carried out based on a phenomenological approach using semi-structured individual interviews with nine Danish women between 29 and 36 years of age with a minimum of one earlier GDM-affected pregnancy. (3) Results: Five themes were identified; perception of physical activity, risk perception, emotional distress, competing priorities and social support. The perception of physical activity varied among the women. The GDM diagnosis or the awareness of elevated risk for T2DM did not seem to be a decisive factor for the women’s motivation to be active. Competing priorities, including being in control of everyday life choices and support from social relations, were found to be important motivational factors. (4) Conclusion: Future interventions for women with prior GDM to increase motivation for physical activity should be compatible with and take into account the women’s perceptions, earlier lived experiences, possible competing priorities and support systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Women 2021)
Systematic Review
Sex Selection Bias in Schizophrenia Antipsychotic Trials—An Update Systematic Review
Women 2021, 1(2), 97-108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/women1020009 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 545
Abstract
The lack of female participation in antipsychotic trials for schizophrenia poses an important issue regarding its applicability, with direct and real-life repercussions to clinical practice. Here, our aim is to systematically review the sampling sex bias among randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of second-generation [...] Read more.
The lack of female participation in antipsychotic trials for schizophrenia poses an important issue regarding its applicability, with direct and real-life repercussions to clinical practice. Here, our aim is to systematically review the sampling sex bias among randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of second-generation antipsychotics—namely risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole—as an update to a previous 2005 review. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane database for studies published through 7 September 2020 that assessed adult samples of at least 50 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorder, or broad psychosis, in order to investigate the percentage of women recruited and associated factors. Our review included 148 RCTs, published from 1993 to 2020, encompassing 43,961 subjects. Overall, the mean proportion of women was 34%, but only 17 trials included 50% or more females. Younger samples, studies conducted in North America, pharmaceutical funding and presence of specific exclusion criteria for women (i.e., pregnancy, breast-feeding or lack of reliable contraceptive) were associated with a lower prevalence of women in the trials. Considering the possible different effects of antipsychotics in both sexes, and our lack of knowledge on the subject due to sampling bias, it is imperative to expand actions aimed at bridging this gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosis in Women)
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Review
Psychiatric Partial Hospitalization Programs: Following World Health Organization Guidelines with a Special Focus on Women with Delusional Disorder
Women 2021, 1(2), 80-96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/women1020008 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 516
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a 7-year Mental Health Action Plan in 2013, which recommends integration of health and social care services into community-based settings, implementation of strategies for health promotion and prevention of illness, and support of research. In this review, [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a 7-year Mental Health Action Plan in 2013, which recommends integration of health and social care services into community-based settings, implementation of strategies for health promotion and prevention of illness, and support of research. In this review, we highlight partial hospitalization programs (PHPs) for delusional disorder (DD), with a special focus on the health and psychosocial needs of women. We suggest that PHPs are, in many ways, ideal settings for carrying out WHO recommendations. PHPs are multidisciplinary and consequently are able to provide a wide range of flexible program offerings. Programming in PHPs is able to address, with proven efficacy, individual needs, such as those presented by women at the various stages of their reproductive life. PHPs are a community bridge between hospital and outpatient services and can quickly adapt to specific needs as affected by gender, but also by age and cultural origins. They are ideal settings for professional training and for conducting clinical research. PHPs operate on the principle of shared decision making, and thus more readily than many other treatment sites, engaging difficult-to-treat patients, such as those with DD, by successfully establishing long-term relationships of trust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosis in Women)
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Article
Serum Creatine Kinase Increases after Acute Strength Training in College Athletes with Menstrual Irregularities
Women 2021, 1(2), 71-79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/women1020007 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Chronic menstrual dysfunction and low female sex hormones adversely affect muscular performance in women but studies in college athletes are scarce. A cohort of 18 Japanese, female college athletes at the University of Tsukuba, Japan, were recruited and studied over 3 weeks under [...] Read more.
Chronic menstrual dysfunction and low female sex hormones adversely affect muscular performance in women but studies in college athletes are scarce. A cohort of 18 Japanese, female college athletes at the University of Tsukuba, Japan, were recruited and studied over 3 weeks under 2 conditions. One group had normal menstrual cycling (CYC, 9 athletes) while the other had irregular cycles (DYS, 9 athletes). Hormones and creatine kinase (CK) were measured from blood under both rest (RE) and exercise (EX) conditions. Biceps femoris tendon stiffness was measured by myometry. No differences in age, height, weight, menarche age, or one-repetition maximum weight existed between the groups. The DYS group had persistently low levels of estrogen and progesterone. In the CYC group, the CK level significantly increased at each point immediately post-exercise and 24 h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise in Weeks 1 and 2, and significantly increased at 24 h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise status in Week 3. The DYS group was significantly different only between pre-exercise and 24 h post-exercise over all 3 weeks. The DYS group also suffered from higher biceps femoris tendon stiffness at 24 h post-exercise. Chronic menstrual irregularities in Japanese college athletes increase muscle damage markers in the bloodstream and muscle stiffness after acute strength training. Full article
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