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Volume 1, June

Pollutants, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Marine pollution poses a major threat to both the marine environment and human health. Sensitive marine ecosystems are already being severely impacted by climate change, in addition to various sources of pollution. Some marine pollution may be unintentional, for example, oil spills. Seveso et al. (2021) comment on a recent shipping accident that resulted in the spillage of fuel oil in the ocean, as well as the biological impact of fuel oil on ecologically sensitive marine habitats, such as coral reefs and mangroves. Based on recent research advancements, the authors suggest monitoring and restoration techniques of the impacted tropical ecosystems. View this paper
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Editorial
Pollutants—Focus on Solving Environmental Pollution Problems
Pollutants 2021, 1(1), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010006 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Pollutants (ISSN 2673-4672) is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal focusing on contaminants that are introduced into the natural environment, beyond permitted limits, and cause measurable deleterious effects on air, water, soil, or living organisms [...] Full article
Article
Removal of Chromium(VI) from Contaminated Water Using Untreated Moringa Leaves as Biosorbent
Pollutants 2021, 1(1), 51-64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010005 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Biosorption of chromium (Cr(VI)) is studied by using raw (chemically not modified) Moringa (Moringa Oleifera) leaf powder without any pretreatment. Cr(VI) is one of the potentially harmful heavy metals found in industrial wastewater. In the Moringa leaf powder, the presence of a significant [...] Read more.
Biosorption of chromium (Cr(VI)) is studied by using raw (chemically not modified) Moringa (Moringa Oleifera) leaf powder without any pretreatment. Cr(VI) is one of the potentially harmful heavy metals found in industrial wastewater. In the Moringa leaf powder, the presence of a significant amount of organic acids form the source for the biosorption of Cr(VI). The concentration of Cr(VI) in the feed solution is varied and different dosages of the proposed biosorbent are used to study its efficiency in the removal of Cr(VI). The concentration of Cr(VI) is varied from 1 ppm to 20 ppm while the amount of biosorbent is varied from 0.5 g to 2.5 g. The equilibrium time for adsorption of Cr(VI) is observed to vary between half an hour and 90 min. The metal removal efficiency varied from 30% to 90% which is a significant achievement compared to other conventional methods which are either energy-intensive or not cost effective. The experimental results are modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherms. The metal removal efficiency is attributed to the chelating effect of carboxylate and hydroxyl groups present in the moringa leaves and is confirmed from the FTIR analysis. Further molecular docking simulations are performed to confirm the binding of the metal to the speculated sites within the different acids present in the moringa leaves. Untreated green moringa leaf powder used as a biosorbent in this study leads to a sustainable and cheaper option for treating wastewater containing Cr(VI). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Pollution)
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Article
Multivariable 3D Geovisualization of Historic and Contemporary Lead Sediment Contamination in Lake Erie
Pollutants 2021, 1(1), 29-50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010004 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Lead sediment contamination in Lake Erie stems from a long history of natural and synthetic resource production. Sediment samples with variable sampling densities were collected by the Canada Centre for Inland Waters in 1971, 1997/1998, and 2014. The kriging interpolation method was used [...] Read more.
Lead sediment contamination in Lake Erie stems from a long history of natural and synthetic resource production. Sediment samples with variable sampling densities were collected by the Canada Centre for Inland Waters in 1971, 1997/1998, and 2014. The kriging interpolation method was used to create continuous sediment contamination surfaces for time/space comparisons. Change detection analyses identified an overall decreasing trend in high lead pollution levels from 1971 to 2014, while sediments with the lowest concentrations increased in surface area. Lake-wide circulation patterns and bathymetric data were added to interpolated contamination surfaces to enhance the understanding of interrelated hydrodynamic processes and geophysical features in the movement of contaminated sediments. Utilizing visualization tools in Esri’s ArcScene, bathymetric data were employed to enhance the geographic context of contamination maps. The physical barriers to sediment transportation created by bathymetric features can be visualized in three-dimensions. Elevated features between lake basins are easily recognized as impedances to lake currents when circulation directions are draped over the bathymetric model. By using illumination tools and techniques, geovisualizations of lead sediment contamination throughout Lake Erie create a scientific communication tool for a wide audience to use in multiple-criteria decision making for environmental remediation of sediment contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution of Groundwater)
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Commentary
The Mauritius Oil Spill: What’s Next?
Pollutants 2021, 1(1), 18-28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010003 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
In light of the recent marine oil spill that occurred off the coast of Mauritius (Indian Ocean), we comment here the incident, the containment method used by the local population, the biological impact of oil spill on two sensitive tropical marine ecosystems (coral [...] Read more.
In light of the recent marine oil spill that occurred off the coast of Mauritius (Indian Ocean), we comment here the incident, the containment method used by the local population, the biological impact of oil spill on two sensitive tropical marine ecosystems (coral reefs and mangrove forests), and we suggest monitoring and restoration techniques of the impacted ecosystems based on recent research advancements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Pollutants)
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Review
The Appropriateness of Using Aquatic Snails as Bioindicators of Toxicity for Oil Sands Process-Affected Water
Pollutants 2021, 1(1), 10-17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010002 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Canada’s oil sands mining activity produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), and there have been increasing concerns regarding the potential environmental impacts associated with this material. Developing an understanding of the toxicity of OSPW is critical to anticipating and mitigating [...] Read more.
Canada’s oil sands mining activity produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), and there have been increasing concerns regarding the potential environmental impacts associated with this material. Developing an understanding of the toxicity of OSPW is critical to anticipating and mitigating the potential risks and effects of the oil sands industry on surrounding ecosystems. The composition of OSPW is highly variable and is influenced by a range of factors. While numerous research projects have been conducted on the toxicity of OSPW, much remains unknown about its impact on various biota. Freshwater gastropods (snails and slugs) are an ecologically crucial aquatic group, and members of this taxa have been used as bioindicators in a range of ecological settings. The literature suggests freshwater snails could be used as an indicator of toxicity in monitoring programs associated with oil sands development. This mini-review explores the use of snails as bioindicators in aquatic systems affected by oil sands development, focusing on how snails may respond to potential constituents of concern in systems exposed to OSPW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pollution Monitoring)
Article
Influence of Moderate Cd and Pb Soil Pollution on Seed Development, Photosynthetic Performance and Foliar Accumulation in the Medicinal Plant Hypericum perforatum
Pollutants 2021, 1(1), 1-9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010001 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
This study investigated whether moderate soil contamination by Cd and Pb may negatively affect seed germination, photosynthesis and foliar accumulation in the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum. Seeds were incubated with Cd and Pb solutions of 10 and 100 µM, and two-month-old plants [...] Read more.
This study investigated whether moderate soil contamination by Cd and Pb may negatively affect seed germination, photosynthesis and foliar accumulation in the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum. Seeds were incubated with Cd and Pb solutions of 10 and 100 µM, and two-month-old plants were watered weekly for three weeks with the same solutions. Control samples were treated with deionized water. The percentage of seed germination and seedling length, as well as chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and foliar reflectance, were measured, along with the foliar Cd and Pb concentrations. The results indicated that seed germination is not affected, while seedling length is decreased by approximately 81% by high Cd levels. Cadmium was subjected to foliar translocation from the soil depending on the supplied concentration, thus causing reductions in the chlorophyll content (−24%). It is of interest that foliar Cd levels in Cd-treated plants were close to or above the limit for the European Pharmacopoeia. Negative effects of Pb were not detected, but accumulation and blockage of this metal at the root level, although not approached experimentally, cannot be ruled out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil Pollution)
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