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Open AccessArticle

Multivariable 3D Geovisualization of Historic and Contemporary Lead Sediment Contamination in Lake Erie

1
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
2
Graduate Program in Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, and Graduate Programs in Environmental Applied Science and Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
3
Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 21 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution of Groundwater)
Lead sediment contamination in Lake Erie stems from a long history of natural and synthetic resource production. Sediment samples with variable sampling densities were collected by the Canada Centre for Inland Waters in 1971, 1997/1998, and 2014. The kriging interpolation method was used to create continuous sediment contamination surfaces for time/space comparisons. Change detection analyses identified an overall decreasing trend in high lead pollution levels from 1971 to 2014, while sediments with the lowest concentrations increased in surface area. Lake-wide circulation patterns and bathymetric data were added to interpolated contamination surfaces to enhance the understanding of interrelated hydrodynamic processes and geophysical features in the movement of contaminated sediments. Utilizing visualization tools in Esri’s ArcScene, bathymetric data were employed to enhance the geographic context of contamination maps. The physical barriers to sediment transportation created by bathymetric features can be visualized in three-dimensions. Elevated features between lake basins are easily recognized as impedances to lake currents when circulation directions are draped over the bathymetric model. By using illumination tools and techniques, geovisualizations of lead sediment contamination throughout Lake Erie create a scientific communication tool for a wide audience to use in multiple-criteria decision making for environmental remediation of sediment contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; kriging; 3D geovisualization; great lakes; sediment contamination; geostatistics; spatial analysis lead; kriging; 3D geovisualization; great lakes; sediment contamination; geostatistics; spatial analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Forsythe, K.W.; Ford, D.E.; Marvin, C.H.; Shaker, R.R.; MacDonald, M.W.; Wilkinson, R. Multivariable 3D Geovisualization of Historic and Contemporary Lead Sediment Contamination in Lake Erie. Pollutants 2021, 1, 29-50. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010004

AMA Style

Forsythe KW, Ford DE, Marvin CH, Shaker RR, MacDonald MW, Wilkinson R. Multivariable 3D Geovisualization of Historic and Contemporary Lead Sediment Contamination in Lake Erie. Pollutants. 2021; 1(1):29-50. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Forsythe, K. W.; Ford, Danielle E.; Marvin, Chris H.; Shaker, Richard R.; MacDonald, Michael W.; Wilkinson, Ryan. 2021. "Multivariable 3D Geovisualization of Historic and Contemporary Lead Sediment Contamination in Lake Erie" Pollutants 1, no. 1: 29-50. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pollutants1010004

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