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Journal. Media., Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 12 articles

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Open AccessEditorial
Journalism and Media: A New Journal to Expand Knowledge in a Dynamic Field
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 177-178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010012 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 839
Abstract
A new journal is always a challenge and an opportunity [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Examination of the Interaction of Democratic Ideals with Journalism Training Programmes in the Global South: The Case of Cambodia
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 159-176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010011 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 305
Abstract
The presumption that a liberal media landscape and associated press culture strengthens good governance and human development has approached orthodoxy in the western world. Consistent with this, journalism training has been a central component of media aid strategies in the Global South. This [...] Read more.
The presumption that a liberal media landscape and associated press culture strengthens good governance and human development has approached orthodoxy in the western world. Consistent with this, journalism training has been a central component of media aid strategies in the Global South. This research examines how normative assumptions about journalism roles can interact with ideas about democracy in a training environment and the possible implications of this. It explores parallels between programme elements relating to democracy facilitation and particular role conceptualisations of journalists trained by these programmes, with a specific interest in how this process is borne out in countries where democratisation processes are ongoing. A qualitative-based methodology, using journalism training in Cambodia as a case study, finds some correlations between democracy-related emphases at training level and specific normative orientations among working journalists who participated in these programmes. However, we find that these democratic norm-related orientations of practitioners contain subtle, but key differentiations from those advocated by programme facilitators. A vocational, advocacy-oriented approach to journalism programmes may have contributed to this outcome in a Cambodian context. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Public Trust and Media in Managing the Dissemination of COVID-19-Related News in Switzerland
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 145-158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010010 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Public trust in health information is essential to ensure that preventative strategies to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 are accepted and followed. This study explored the way Swiss people accessed and consumed news and information about the coronavirus from different channels, and the [...] Read more.
Public trust in health information is essential to ensure that preventative strategies to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 are accepted and followed. This study explored the way Swiss people accessed and consumed news and information about the coronavirus from different channels, and the role media plays in public trust during the pandemic. Based on a study of 442 randomly assigned participants in French-speaking regions, we examined the following four questions: (1) What are the news sources and platforms and how are they used? (2) How does the public rate the trustworthiness of these sources and platforms? (3) To what extent does the public perceive that these sources and platforms are provided inaccurate information? (4) What roles do these sources and platforms play in the pandemic? Implications are discussed in the conclusion based on our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media Freedom in the Age of COVID-19)
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Open AccessArticle
Tweets That Matter: Reconsidering Journalistic Sourcing and Framing Processes in the Context of the #Grexit Debate
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 122-144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010009 - 12 Dec 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
This study explores the news media Twitter messaging on the issue of Grexit, as an exemplary case of transmediatisation of problems in highly polarized contexts. Our analysis focuses on media tweets (in English, French, Italian, and Greek) using the Grexit hashtag between March [...] Read more.
This study explores the news media Twitter messaging on the issue of Grexit, as an exemplary case of transmediatisation of problems in highly polarized contexts. Our analysis focuses on media tweets (in English, French, Italian, and Greek) using the Grexit hashtag between March and July 2015. There are three main questions on the potential reshaping of journalistic sourcing and framing on Twitter. The first focuses on the milieu of actors used by media outlets as sources in the #Grexit debate, the second on the types of news frames that dominated #Grexit media tweets, and the third on how sourcing and news frames interact to construct a space of power positions. The above processes took shape within a close information system, which included politicians, media elites, and economic experts that marginalized alternative voices and critical perspectives. These findings indicate that mainstream news media normalized Twitter to fit their traditional sourcing and framing norms and practices. More specifically, our findings indicate the following: first, traditional sources and powerful economic actors get easier access to online media reporting on Twitter; second, the negative and episodic media-driven frames take the lead in the frame-building process; and third, the non-elite political and socially-driven frames are marginalized in the framing building process. The Twitter affordances were essentially normalized by media to fit into their understandings of the negotiation process as a high-stakes international politics and economic game with predetermined winners and losers. It is also likely that this normalization reflects the normalization of Twitter by powerful political and economic elites aiming to offer journalists on Twitter easy and instant access to their narratives. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Media and Misinformation in Times of COVID-19: How People Informed Themselves in the Days Following the Portuguese Declaration of the State of Emergency
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 108-121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010008 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 456
Abstract
This study takes as a starting point the importance and dependence of the media to obtain information about the pandemic. The dependency theory of the media system was developed in the 1970s when mass media were the dominant source of information. Today, at [...] Read more.
This study takes as a starting point the importance and dependence of the media to obtain information about the pandemic. The dependency theory of the media system was developed in the 1970s when mass media were the dominant source of information. Today, at a time when media choices have become abundant, studies are needed to understand the phenomenon of media dependence in light of new dimensions made important by the transformations that have taken place in the social and media fields—where the coexistence of mass media with social media platforms stands out. As large-scale crises rarely occur and the media environment changes rapidly, it is important to analyze how media dependence relates to choose and trust in different media (traditional media vs. social media) in times of crisis. Several questions arise. What is the trust attributed by individuals to social media as sources of information about COVID-19? How well informed are the individuals who choose these sources as the main sources of information? From a questionnaire administered to 244 individuals in Portugal, during the first week of the state of emergency (March 2020), this research seeks to identify how people gained access to information about COVID-19, how they acted critically towards the various sources and how they assess the reliability of different media. Finally, it analyzes the association between the type of medium chosen and adherence to misinformation content about the virus. The results reveal the existence of a phenomenon of dependence on the media, with a strong exposure (both active and accidental) to informative content, with conventional media being privileged as the main source, and positively distinguished in terms of confidence. Finally, a statistically significant association of a positive sign was identified between the use of social media as the main source and the acceptance of misinformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media Freedom in the Age of COVID-19)
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Technologies and the Public Sphere in Spain: Spatial Metaphors, Viewers’ Perceptions and Demands in Light of the Democratic Challenge (2014–2017)
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 92-107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010007 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 534
Abstract
During the 2010s, there was a “utopian moment” as regards the structure of media, owing to the social space created by digital culture, transmediality, and the different ways of participating in public debate. What is expected from digital information transmitted via the Web [...] Read more.
During the 2010s, there was a “utopian moment” as regards the structure of media, owing to the social space created by digital culture, transmediality, and the different ways of participating in public debate. What is expected from digital information transmitted via the Web and social media is action and interaction with subjects in the public space or square. Accordingly, this paper analyses the descriptive assertions and proposals of the viewers of newscasts of Spanish television between 2014 and 2017, as regards how they perceived and represented the public space, mediatised by information through spatial metaphors. Specifically, it is based on the analysis of the transcriptions of five discussion groups and four interviews, whose aim is to examine two polarised spatial metaphors—the traffic labyrinth and the open square—and a series of demands relating to the role of journalists, media ownership, viewers’ access, and the quality of democratic society. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Accepting the Digital Challenge: Business Models and Audience Participation in Online Native Media
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 78-91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010006 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Since the mid-1990s, many journalistic initiatives have entered the online environment, either as a continuation of brands already consolidated in conventional formats or as native projects of the new medium. In Spain, the online media scene has just completed its first quarter century [...] Read more.
Since the mid-1990s, many journalistic initiatives have entered the online environment, either as a continuation of brands already consolidated in conventional formats or as native projects of the new medium. In Spain, the online media scene has just completed its first quarter century of life. This said, the aim of this proposal is to present the evolution of the digital native media in Spain in order to compare their current situation with European success stories. For that purpose, we have conducted a comparative case study between three highlighted Spanish digital native news outlets and three from other European countries. The results show a progressive shift towards a member-funded model, while news outlets try to reduce their dependence on advertising. However, the three European natives seem to be more advanced compared to the Spanish cases as these remain still dependent on advertising revenues to stand upright. Furthermore, two models of participation stand out: the user community and, in particular, the model of collaboration networks. Nevertheless, the study reveals how the analyzed European news outlets are changing the role of the reader through innovative forms of participatory interactivity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Saving Lives and Changing Minds with Twitter in Disasters and Pandemics: A Literature Review
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 59-77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010005 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Twitter is a major tool for communication during emergencies and disasters. This study aimed to investigate Twitter use during natural hazards and pandemics. The included studies reported the role of Twitter in disasters triggered by natural hazards. Electronic databases were used for a [...] Read more.
Twitter is a major tool for communication during emergencies and disasters. This study aimed to investigate Twitter use during natural hazards and pandemics. The included studies reported the role of Twitter in disasters triggered by natural hazards. Electronic databases were used for a comprehensive literature search to identify the records that match the mentioned inclusion criteria published through May 2020. Forty-five articles met the selection criteria and were included in the review. These indicated ten functions of Twitter in disasters, including early warning, dissemination of information, advocacy, assessment, risk communication, public sentiment, geographical analysis, charity, collaboration with influencers and building trust. Preventing the spread of misinformation is one of the most important issues in times of disaster, especially pandemics. Sharing accurate, transparent and prompt information from emergency organizations and governments can help. Moreover, analyzing Twitter data can be a good way to understand the mental state of the community, estimate the number of injured people, estimate the points affected by disasters and model the prevalence of epidemics. Therefore, various groups such as politicians, government, nongovernmental organizations, aid workers and the health system can use this information to plan and implement interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media Freedom in the Age of COVID-19)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Swedish Government and Country Image during the International Media Coverage of the Coronavirus Pandemic Strategy: From Bold to Pariah
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 41-58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010004 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The Coronavirus pandemic has caused a great deal of disruption and fear for countries and peoples around the globe. It has spread in a seemingly unstoppable manner, which has created a global crisis in terms of strategies to mitigate its effects, and how [...] Read more.
The Coronavirus pandemic has caused a great deal of disruption and fear for countries and peoples around the globe. It has spread in a seemingly unstoppable manner, which has created a global crisis in terms of strategies to mitigate its effects, and how these strategies are communicated is vital to the credibility and legitimacy of those relevant actors. This paper examines and analyses how the Swedish government attempted to frame its pandemic strategy in the international mass media as a successful example of the ‘Swedish model’. Initially, this was successful and those frames seemed to be accepted; however, this soon changed and instead of serving as an example to emulate it became a model to avoid. Using hegemony theory and indexing theory, this paper attempts to explain how and why this change occurred. The change in the coverage becomes apparent as the Swedish government’s coronavirus policy and strategy of Sweden begins to increasingly diverge from the global orthodoxy of other countries, including the United Kingdom. Therefore, the politics of crisis management among the political elite begin to diverge and the politics of crisis management creates a more hostile and critical environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Data Journalism Practices Globally: Skills, Education, Opportunities, and Values
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 26-40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010003 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Despite the growing interest in data journalism in newsrooms and its more recent emergence as an academic discipline, there is a need for systematic research on the state-of-the-art and current data journalism-related practices in newsrooms. The Global Data Journalism survey was an attempt [...] Read more.
Despite the growing interest in data journalism in newsrooms and its more recent emergence as an academic discipline, there is a need for systematic research on the state-of-the-art and current data journalism-related practices in newsrooms. The Global Data Journalism survey was an attempt to address this gap by studying the data journalism practices in newsrooms across the world. This study provides a descriptive view of the results of this study and discusses the findings on several aspects of data journalism practice, characteristics of data journalists and data teams, and their skills and educational requirements. We further provide insight into the values associated with journalistic work and analyse the ways in which the community believes data journalism has improved or undermined these values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reading about Gastronomy—An approach to Food Contents in New York City’s Newspapers
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 18-25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010002 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Food and gastronomy are significant ingredients of everyday leisure and lifestyle practices. Food is part of culture and culture is part of the media. The current research analyzes the mediatization of food in legacy media. Drawing from a quantitative approach, the paper reviews [...] Read more.
Food and gastronomy are significant ingredients of everyday leisure and lifestyle practices. Food is part of culture and culture is part of the media. The current research analyzes the mediatization of food in legacy media. Drawing from a quantitative approach, the paper reviews food-based contents in New York City’s newspapers. In particular, AM New York, El Diario, Metro, The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal are studied over a period of 50 days. As a result, a total of 287 articles are analyzed. This research highlights the features of food and gastronomy contents and describes the differences and similarities between traditional newspapers and free dailies. Furthermore, the referent role of The New York Times in communicating food is confirmed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Transitions in Journalism—Toward a Semantic-Oriented Technological Framework
Journal. Media. 2020, 1(1), 1-17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/journalmedia1010001 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The technologies behind today’s web services, tools, and applications are evolving continually. As a result, the workflows and methods of different business sectors are undergoing constant change. The news industry and journalism are heavily affected by these changes. New technological means for practicing [...] Read more.
The technologies behind today’s web services, tools, and applications are evolving continually. As a result, the workflows and methods of different business sectors are undergoing constant change. The news industry and journalism are heavily affected by these changes. New technological means for practicing journalism and producing news items are being incorporated in media workflows, challenging well established journalistic norms and practices. The perpetual technological evolution of the web creates a wide range of opportunities. For this reason, both technology companies and media organizations have begun to experiment with semantic web technologies. Our focus in this paper was to discover and define the ways that semantic technologies can contribute to the technological upgrade of everyday journalism. From this perspective, we introduced the term ‘semantic journalism’ and attempted to investigate the transition of journalism to a semantic-oriented technological framework. Full article
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