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Volume 2, March

J. Mol. Pathol., Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 6 articles

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Open AccessCase Report
Concomitant Rare KRAS and BRAF Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report
J. Mol. Pathol. 2020, 1(1), 36-42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmp1010006 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 501
Abstract
In July 2020, an active smoker, 63-year old man was admitted to the oncology unit of A.O.R.N. Sant’Anna e San Sebastiano (Caserta, Italy). Chest radiology highlighted right pleural effusion. Total-body CT scanning revealed a solid lesion with lobulated contours in the apical segment [...] Read more.
In July 2020, an active smoker, 63-year old man was admitted to the oncology unit of A.O.R.N. Sant’Anna e San Sebastiano (Caserta, Italy). Chest radiology highlighted right pleural effusion. Total-body CT scanning revealed a solid lesion with lobulated contours in the apical segment of the upper right lobe. The patient’s oncologist requested a molecular assessment of EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, and KRAS, as well as an evaluation of PD-L1 expression level. To this end, we carried out NGS analysis, on DNA extracted from cytospins, by adopting a custom-designed NGS panel (SiRe®). Overall, no actionable mutations in the tested genes were identified. Conversely, concomitant BRAF exon 11 p.G469A and a KRAS exon 4 p.A146T mutations were detected. Owing to the limited data on the presence of KRAS exon 4 p.A146T point mutation in lung adenocarcinoma patients, a further molecular confirmatory analysis was carried out with a dedicated KRAS cartridge on a fully automated real time polymerase chain reaction. When DNA was extracted from the TTF-1 positive tumor cell slide, the same KRAS alteration was observed. Unfortunately, the patient died in August 2020 before having the chance to start any type of treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer)
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Open AccessCase Report
Persistent Ependymal Tumor Arising from an Immature Ovarian Teratoma: A Rare Case
J. Mol. Pathol. 2020, 1(1), 32-35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmp1010005 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Primary ovarian ependymoma is a rare neuroectodermal neoplasm that can arise from immature ovarian teratoma. Due to the paucity of this entity, a complete molecular analysis of these tumors has not been done, thus creating a challenge for finding an effective and safe [...] Read more.
Primary ovarian ependymoma is a rare neuroectodermal neoplasm that can arise from immature ovarian teratoma. Due to the paucity of this entity, a complete molecular analysis of these tumors has not been done, thus creating a challenge for finding an effective and safe therapeutic treatment. In the limited literature, patients with primary ovarian ependymoma showed various responses to an array of individualized therapies, ranging from surgeries to chemotherapies. Here, we present a 38-year-old female with persistent ovarian ependymoma, with a molecular profile similar to traditional central nervous system ependymoma that is irresponsive to multiple cytoreduction and clinical experimental therapies. Therefore, a prompt recognition and reporting of this entity can greatly aid in expanding the understanding and standardization of therapies for this neoplasm. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
ROC Analysis Identifies Baseline and Dynamic NLR and dNLR Cut-Offs to Predict ICI Outcome in 402 Advanced NSCLC Patients
J. Mol. Pathol. 2020, 1(1), 19-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmp1010004 - 15 Sep 2020
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Abstract
Background: Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and derived Neutrophils-to-(Leukocytes minus neutrophils) Ratio (dNLR) have been proposed as possible biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). However, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) studies, various NLR and/or dNLR cut-offs have been used, manly based on [...] Read more.
Background: Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and derived Neutrophils-to-(Leukocytes minus neutrophils) Ratio (dNLR) have been proposed as possible biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). However, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) studies, various NLR and/or dNLR cut-offs have been used, manly based on previous reports on melanoma. Methods: In this Italian multicenter retrospective study, NLR, dNLR, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were longitudinally assessed in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with ICI. The primary objective was to evaluate if baseline parameters predicted response to ICI, using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Secondary endpoint was to evaluate if dynamic changing of NLR and dNLR also predicted response. Results: Data of 402 patients were collected and analyzed. Among the baseline parameters considered, NLR and dNLR were the most appropriate biomarkers according to the ROC analyses, which also identified meaningful cut-offs (NLR = 2.46; dNLR = 1.61). Patients with low ratios reported a significantly improved outcome, in terms of overall survival (p = 0.0003 for NLR; p = 0.0002 for dNLR) and progression free survival (p = 0.0004 for NLR; p = 0.005 for dNLR). The role of NLR and dNLR as independent biomarkers of response was confirmed in the Cox regression model. When assessing NLR and dNLR dynamics from baseline to cycle 3, a decrease ≥1.04 for NLR and ≥0.41 for dNLR also predicted response. Conclusions in our cohort, we confirmed that NLR and dNLR, easily assessable on peripheral blood, can predict response at baseline and early after ICI initiation. For both baseline and dynamic assessment, we identified clinically meaningful cut-offs, using ROC curves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Pathology in Solid Tumors)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Hybrid Capture II Method with a PCR-Based Screening Method Using a Carboxyfluorescein-Labeled Primer for Detecting Human Papillomavirus in Cervicovaginal Liquid-Based Cytology
J. Mol. Pathol. 2020, 1(1), 9-18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmp1010003 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 593
Abstract
Objective: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are DNA viruses, of which over 120 types have been identified. The main screening methods for HPV-DNA include the hybrid capture II (HC-II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a high-quality technique developed to improve [...] Read more.
Objective: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are DNA viruses, of which over 120 types have been identified. The main screening methods for HPV-DNA include the hybrid capture II (HC-II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a high-quality technique developed to improve the diagnostic reliability of traditional Papanicolaou tests (Pap tests). However, relatively few studies have compared the efficacy of PCR and HC-II assays using cervicovaginal LBC specimens. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis with results derived from the HC-II assay to assess whether a PCR-based assay using a novel carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled primer could be applied to cervicovaginal LBC specimens. Methods and Results: We analyzed 59 specimens diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) by Pap tests. After extracting DNA from cervicovaginal LBC specimens, we performed PCR using a FAM-labeled consensus primer, and then conducted fragment analysis to confirm the results. The value of the kappa statistic measuring the agreement between the PCR and HC-II results was 0.8557, or “almost perfect agreement.” Conclusion: Our novel HPV-PCR assay can be successfully applied to cervicovaginal LBC specimens for the detection of HPV subtypes. Full article
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Open AccessHypothesis
Are Microsatellite Patterns Specific for Tumor Types? A Pilot Investigation
J. Mol. Pathol. 2020, 1(1), 3-8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmp1010002 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Microsatellite testing is an emerging field of molecular pathology, as microsatellite instability (MSI) appears to be a predictive biomarker for some cancers. Although multiple studies on microsatellites have been published, recent observations suggest that the microsatellites that define instability differ between tumor entities. [...] Read more.
Microsatellite testing is an emerging field of molecular pathology, as microsatellite instability (MSI) appears to be a predictive biomarker for some cancers. Although multiple studies on microsatellites have been published, recent observations suggest that the microsatellites that define instability differ between tumor entities. This assumption is confirmed by the present study that compared different MSI assays validated for colorectal cancer. Whilst all assays deliver the same MSI/MSS status for colorectal cancers, they differ for tonsillar tumors, leading to the hypothesis that MSI patterns are tumor-type specific. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
The Birth of the Journal of Molecular Pathology
J. Mol. Pathol. 2020, 1(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmp1010001 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 621
Abstract
In the era of personalized/precision medicine, the relevance of molecular pathology cannot be overemphasized [...] Full article
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