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Association of Mediterranean Diet Adherence, Functional Food Consumption and Anthropometric Characteristics with Anxiety and Depression Indexes in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of the Aegean, 81400 Myrina, Greece
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Received: 4 October 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 8 December 2020
The purpose of this randomized, retrospective study was to investigate the possible association among levels of anxiety and depression and functional food consumption frequency, Mediterranean diet adoption and anthropometric indices in a sample of Greek, mainly young, adults. One hundred twenty healthy adults, 80% of whom were 18–35 years old, were randomly recruited from the North Aegean Islands, mainly from the Aegean University campus. The degree of anxiety was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X-1,2) whereas the degree of depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mediterranean diet adherence was evaluated using the Med Diet Score and functional foods consumption frequency by a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). According to our results, the study did not show a statistically significant association between Mediterranean diet adherence and anxiety or depression levels (p > 0.05), and a trend association was observed only for the depression grouped score. In parallel, increased depression level was significantly correlated with an increased body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.019). In addition, the consumption of specific functional foods, such as beans, nuts, pomegranate, spinach and foods enriched with β-glucans, correlated with state-trait anxiety or depression levels, as well as with anthropometric indices (p < 0.05). The results of the study may contribute to the elucidation of the possible role of the Mediterranean diet and functional food consumption on self-esteem, anxiety and depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: mediterranean diet; functional foods; Spielberger anxiety scale; Beck Depression Inventory; self-esteem mediterranean diet; functional foods; Spielberger anxiety scale; Beck Depression Inventory; self-esteem
MDPI and ACS Style

Elmaliklis, I.-N.; Miserli, E.; Filipatou, M.; Tsikouras, I.; Dimou, C.; Koutelidakis, A. Association of Mediterranean Diet Adherence, Functional Food Consumption and Anthropometric Characteristics with Anxiety and Depression Indexes in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study. Psychiatry Int. 2020, 1, 135-149. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint1020014

AMA Style

Elmaliklis I-N, Miserli E, Filipatou M, Tsikouras I, Dimou C, Koutelidakis A. Association of Mediterranean Diet Adherence, Functional Food Consumption and Anthropometric Characteristics with Anxiety and Depression Indexes in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study. Psychiatry International. 2020; 1(2):135-149. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint1020014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elmaliklis, Ioannis-Nektarios, Elisavet Miserli, Maria Filipatou, Ioannis Tsikouras, Charalampia Dimou, and Antonios Koutelidakis. 2020. "Association of Mediterranean Diet Adherence, Functional Food Consumption and Anthropometric Characteristics with Anxiety and Depression Indexes in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study" Psychiatry International 1, no. 2: 135-149. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint1020014

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