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Alternatives to Pharmacological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments in Psychiatric Disorders

Department of Neurosurgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, 20133 Milan, Italy
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Received: 7 November 2020 / Revised: 26 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
Nowadays, most of the patients affected by psychiatric disorders are successfully treated with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Nevertheless, according to the disease, a variable percentage of patients results resistant to such modalities, and alternative methods can then be considered. The purpose of this review is to summarize the techniques and results of invasive modalities for several treatment-resistant psychiatric diseases. A literature search was performed to provide an up-to-date review of advantages, disadvantages, efficacy, and complications of Deep-Brain Stimulation, Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused-Ultrasound, radiofrequency, and radiotherapy lesioning for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, addiction, anorexia nervosa, and Tourette’s syndrome. The literature search did not strictly follow the criteria for a systematic review: due to the large differences in methodologies and patients’ cohort, we tried to identify the highest quality of available evidence for each technique. We present the data as a comprehensive, narrative review about the role, indication, safety, and results of the contemporary instrumental techniques that opened new therapeutic fields for selected patients unresponsive to psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: addiction; deep-brain stimulation; DBS; eating disorders; depression; MRgFUS; obsessive-compulsive disorder; psychosurgery; schizophrenia; Tourette’s syndrome addiction; deep-brain stimulation; DBS; eating disorders; depression; MRgFUS; obsessive-compulsive disorder; psychosurgery; schizophrenia; Tourette’s syndrome
MDPI and ACS Style

Vetrano, I.G.; Bonomo, G.; Messina, G. Alternatives to Pharmacological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments in Psychiatric Disorders. Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2, 1-24. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2010001

AMA Style

Vetrano IG, Bonomo G, Messina G. Alternatives to Pharmacological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments in Psychiatric Disorders. Psychiatry International. 2021; 2(1):1-24. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2010001

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vetrano, Ignazio G., Giulio Bonomo, and Giuseppe Messina. 2021. "Alternatives to Pharmacological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments in Psychiatric Disorders" Psychiatry International 2, no. 1: 1-24. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2010001

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