Next Article in Journal
Are the Most Effective Approaches towards Helping Students with Emotional Behavioural Disorders (EBDs) Predisposed and Trait Based?
Previous Article in Journal
The Activation Relationship to Father and the Attachment Relationship to Mother in Children with Externalizing Behaviors and Receiving Psychiatric Care
Article

Mental Health of the General Population during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Tale of Two Developing Countries

1
Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, China
2
Department of Psychology, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan 9816743545, Iran
3
Department of Psychology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan 9816743545, Iran
4
Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
5
Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
6
Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
7
Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
8
Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
9
Institute of Health Innovation and Technology (iHealthtech), National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Joint first author.
Received: 17 January 2021 / Revised: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 March 2021 / Published: 9 March 2021
Background: This study aimed to compare the severity of psychological impact, anxiety and depression between people from two developing countries, Iran and China, and to correlate mental health parameters with variables relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although China and Iran are developing countries based on the World Bank’s criteria, these two countries are different in access to resources and health care systems. We hypothesized that Iranians would show higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress as compared to Chinese. Methods: This study collected information related to the COVID-19 pandemic including physical health, precautionary measures and knowledge about the pandemic. We also used validated questionnaires such as the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess the mental health status. Results: There were a total of 1411 respondents (550 from Iran; 861 from China). The mean IES-R scores of respondents from both countries were above the cut-off for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Iranians had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression (p < 0.01). Significantly more Iranians believed COVID-19 was transmitted via contact, practised hand hygiene, were unsatisfied with health information and expressed less confidence in their doctors, but were less likely to wear a facemask (p < 0.001). Significantly more Iranians received health information related to COVID-19 via television while Chinese preferred the Internet (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This cross-country study found that Iranians had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression as compared to Chinese. The difference in reported measures between respondents from Iran and China were due to differences in access to healthcare services and governments’ responses to the pandemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety; China; coronavirus; COVID-19; depression; developing countries; Iran; knowledge; pandemic; precaution; psychological impact; stress anxiety; China; coronavirus; COVID-19; depression; developing countries; Iran; knowledge; pandemic; precaution; psychological impact; stress
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.; Fardin, M.A.; Shirazi, M.; Pan, R.; Wan, X.; Tan, Y.; Xu, L.; McIntyre, R.S.; Tran, B.; Quek, T.T.C.; Husain, S.F.; Wang, J.; Ho, C.; Ho, R. Mental Health of the General Population during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Tale of Two Developing Countries. Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2, 71-84. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2010006

AMA Style

Wang C, Fardin MA, Shirazi M, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, McIntyre RS, Tran B, Quek TTC, Husain SF, Wang J, Ho C, Ho R. Mental Health of the General Population during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Tale of Two Developing Countries. Psychiatry International. 2021; 2(1):71-84. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2010006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Cuiyan, Mohammad A. Fardin, Mahmoud Shirazi, Riyu Pan, Xiaoyang Wan, Yilin Tan, Linkang Xu, Roger S. McIntyre, Bach Tran, Travis T.C. Quek, Syeda F. Husain, Jiayun Wang, Cyrus Ho, and Roger Ho. 2021. "Mental Health of the General Population during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Tale of Two Developing Countries" Psychiatry International 2, no. 1: 71-84. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2010006

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop