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Volume 2, June

Psychiatry Int., Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 10 articles

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Article
Prevention of Depression in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: The Role of Teachers and Parents
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 353-364; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030027 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and other affective disorders may surreptitiously arise in children and adolescents during their school period and impair their social and educational functioning. Besides the social and personal burden, which are increased during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the onset of depression [...] Read more.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and other affective disorders may surreptitiously arise in children and adolescents during their school period and impair their social and educational functioning. Besides the social and personal burden, which are increased during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the onset of depression may compromise the future of the growing person with chronicity and recurrence. In this context, educators’ training is essential to detect early the onset of a depressive disorder, to spare later consequences through the timely establishment of adequate treatment. The educational staff should receive adequate training to be able to work closely with healthcare providers and parents, thus directing the young person with an affective disorder to the right psychological and pharmacological treatment provider, i.e., a specialized psychologist or psychiatrist. The first approach should be to establish a trustful relationship with the adolescent and his/her classmates, to reduce social and self-stigma and inform about mental illness. If symptoms do not subside and the suffering child or adolescent fails to reintegrate within his/her school environment, cognitive–behavioral interventions are recommended that are individual, group, or computer-based. When needed, these should be implemented with individualized pharmacotherapy. Full article
Review
Clozapine and Constipation: A Review of Clinical Considerations and Treatment Options
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 344-352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030026 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Psychosis, a break in reality which is manifested as hallucinations, delusions or the disruption in thought process, is the hallmark of schizophrenia. Despite novel pharmacotherapy advancements of antipsychotic medications that have resulted in some patients having the ability to return to social settings [...] Read more.
Psychosis, a break in reality which is manifested as hallucinations, delusions or the disruption in thought process, is the hallmark of schizophrenia. Despite novel pharmacotherapy advancements of antipsychotic medications that have resulted in some patients having the ability to return to social settings and thereby decreasing psychotic symptoms and reducing hospital admissions, there is still a sub-population of patients who remain symptomatic. Treatment-resistant schizophrenia is defined as failure of treatment with at least two different antipsychotics with the proper length of treatment and titration. Clozapine has been heralded as a drug to resolve the puzzle of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine has one side effect that is well known, being the development of agranulocytosis. However, there is another side effect that can limit clozapine’s use and can also be life-threatening. Recently, at the end of January 2020, the FDA issued a communications statement which “[strengthened] an existing warning that constipation caused by the schizophrenia medicine clozapine can, uncommonly, progress to serious bowel complications.” After identifying ten cases of constipation from between 2006 to 2016 that progressed to hospitalization, surgery, and even death, the FDA focused their attention on this often overlooked, common side effect, especially when considering the strong anticholinergic effects of clozapine. Although patients are screened by their physicians for agranulocytosis by weekly lab monitoring, constipation is also a complication that needs to be identified and treated. Much like opioid-induced constipation, constipation can also be reduced with the use of laxatives and reduction in the co-prescribing of anticholinergic therapies with clozapine. Full article
Review
Model Driven Causal Factors of Panic Buying and Their Implications for Prevention: A Systematic Review
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 325-343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030025 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Panic buying is a commonly observed response to disasters, and has been widely observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about the variables influencing this behavior. This review summarizes the existing research in this field and examines its implications for the [...] Read more.
Panic buying is a commonly observed response to disasters, and has been widely observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about the variables influencing this behavior. This review summarizes the existing research in this field and examines its implications for the prevention and control of panic buying. Methodology: All papers published prior to or during the pandemic, providing an empirically tested model of panic buying behavior (Group A) or a theoretical model supported by literature (Group B), were retrieved through a literature search. For papers in Group A, specific risk or protective factors were extracted and tabulated. Overlaps between Group A and Group B models were identified. Study results were analyzed to identify potential strategies which could limit panic buying behavior. Results: It was found that a wide variety of primary (crisis/disease-related), secondary (psychological, informational and sociopolitical), and tertiary (supply chain-related) factors were significantly associated with panic buying, while a single variable–reflective functioning was identified as protective. Conclusions: These results provide valuable leads for strategies aimed at preventing or reducing panic buying, particularly in countries still affected by the pandemic. It is hoped that these findings will be useful from both health administration and academic perspectives. Full article
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Article
Sociodemographic, Circumstantial, and Psychopathological Predictors of Involuntary Admission of Patients with Acute Psychosis
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 310-324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030024 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Studies have consistently determined that patients with acute psychosis are more likely to be involuntarily admitted, although few studies examine specific risk factors of involuntary admission (IA) among this patient group. Data from all patients presenting in the psychiatric emergency department (PED) over [...] Read more.
Studies have consistently determined that patients with acute psychosis are more likely to be involuntarily admitted, although few studies examine specific risk factors of involuntary admission (IA) among this patient group. Data from all patients presenting in the psychiatric emergency department (PED) over a period of one year were extracted. Acute psychosis was identified using specific diagnostic criteria. Predictors of IA were determined using logistic regression analysis. Out of 2533 emergency consultations, 597 patients presented with symptoms of acute psychosis, of whom 118 were involuntarily admitted (19.8%). Involuntarily admitted patients were more likely to arrive via police escort (odds ratio (OR) 10.94) or ambulance (OR 2.95), live in a psychiatric residency/nursing home (OR 2.76), report non-adherence to medication (OR 2.39), and were less likely to suffer from (comorbid) substance abuse (OR 0.53). Use of mechanical restraint was significantly associated with IA (OR 13.31). Among psychopathological aspects, aggressiveness was related to the highest risk of IA (OR 6.18), followed by suicidal intent (OR 5.54), disorientation (OR 4.66), tangential thinking (OR 3.95), and suspiciousness (OR 2.80). Patients stating fears were less likely to be involuntarily admitted (OR 0.25). By understanding the surrounding influencing factors, patient care can be improved with the aim of reducing the use of coercion. Full article
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Article
Association between Self-Restraint Behavior, Stigma and Depressive Tendency in Office Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan—Self-Restraint Behavior and Depression during the COVID-19
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 300-309; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030023 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to change their lifestyles, especially with respect to restrictions on going out. Forced quarantine (i.e., lockdown) and self-restraint behavior (SRB), including self-quarantine, are suggested to induce potential negative impacts on public mental health. SRB seems to [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to change their lifestyles, especially with respect to restrictions on going out. Forced quarantine (i.e., lockdown) and self-restraint behavior (SRB), including self-quarantine, are suggested to induce potential negative impacts on public mental health. SRB seems to be related to governmental policies, each individual’s social background and mental condition; however, no empirical studies have been conducted. Methods: 1053 participants (mainly office workers) from epidemic areas and non-epidemic areas in Japan voluntarily conducted an online survey in June 2020. We assessed COVID-19-related aspects such as the degree of SRB, motivation for SRB, stigma, anxiety and depressive feelings due to COVID-19 by original questionnaires) and general mental health status (social anxiety by MINI-SPIN, depressive tendency by PHQ-9, depression-related personality traits by TACS-22 and resilience by TRS). Results: Regional comparison showed significant differences in SRB and social anxiety. People in epidemic areas tend to refrain from going out. Conversely, people in non-epidemic areas tend to shun the public eye. Regardless of epidemic status, proactive SRB was associated with higher motivation for SRB, higher social anxiety, higher depressive tendency, stronger COVID-19-related psychological factors and lower resilience. Moreover, people with proactive SRB in non-epidemic areas had the highest depressive tendency. Discussion: The present cross-sectional survey among office workers in Japan showed that people with proactive SRB have stronger COVID-19-related anxiety and depressive feelings, regardless of where they live. Our key finding is that people with proactive SRB in non-epidemic areas have the highest depressive tendency. Based on the present finding, we herein propose the following hypothesis: Higher levels of depressive tendency may enhance proactive SRB, which may be partly associated with higher levels of stigma, anxiety and depressive feelings related to COVID-19. Limitations: The general tendencies to avoid danger and stigma were not evaluated. Conclusions: Depressive tendency is suggested to be associated with proactive SRB against COVID-19. Intervention for depressive tendency in non-clinical settings (e.g., workplaces) may help citizens understand the infectious situation appropriately and to behave effectively during the pandemic. Further investigations should be conducted to clarify the present findings. Full article
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Article
A Randomised Controlled CBT Intervention for Maladaptive Perfectionism: Outcome and Predictors
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 287-299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030022 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
Maladaptive perfectionism has been associated with certain mental health problems. Moreover, studies suggest that the development of perfectionism can be attributed to childhood experiences and, more specifically, to parenting styles. (1) Background: The aims of the present study were first to examine the [...] Read more.
Maladaptive perfectionism has been associated with certain mental health problems. Moreover, studies suggest that the development of perfectionism can be attributed to childhood experiences and, more specifically, to parenting styles. (1) Background: The aims of the present study were first to examine the relationship of perfectionism to perceived parenting and current symptoms of depression and anxiety and, secondly, to study the effectiveness of a group CBT intervention program for high perfectionism; (2) Methods: Participants were 81 young Greek adults with relatively high scores in perfectionism. They were randomly allocated to two conditions: either the intervention group (IG; n = 40) or a non-active control group (CG; n = 41). The intervention group received a CBT intervention of 10 weekly sessions, while assessments were made in two time points for both groups; (3) Results: There was significant correlation of perfectionism with perceived parental indifference, abuse, and overcontrol as well as measures of anxiety and depression. Results showed significant decrease in perfectionism and other symptoms in the IG. Although perceived paternal indifference and abuse could predict perfectionism at pre-intervention, no pre-intervention variable could predict the perfectionism intervention outcome; (4) Conclusions: Overall, the study suggests that maladaptive perfectionism is associated with perceived negative parenting and current anxiety and depression and that a group CBT intervention can address specific dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism. Full article
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Article
The Coping Strategies Used by Young Tunisian Athletes in Individual and Collective Sports
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 277-286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030021 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
The objective of this study was to discover the repertoire of coping strategies used by young Tunisian male and female athletes in individual and team sports when competing in their sport, and to examine the effect of gender and type of sport on [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to discover the repertoire of coping strategies used by young Tunisian male and female athletes in individual and team sports when competing in their sport, and to examine the effect of gender and type of sport on these strategies. A total of 917 young Tunisian athletes including 349 female athletes and 568 male athletes, aged 14 to 19, with an average age of 15.63 ± 1.5 years, participated in our study. Participants were invited to respond to the Arabic version of the Competitive Sport Adaptation Strategy Inventory to assess their coping repertoire. The results revealed that factors, such as gender, and type of sport, influenced the coping repertoire among young athletes. In the inter-personal and intra-personal context, young athletes used a wide variety of coping strategies, all of which were task-oriented and disengagement-oriented. Full article
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment for Women with Postpartum Depression
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 265-276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030020 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has a strong evidence base for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), however, there is minimal research investigating the treatment of depression within the postpartum period. This systematic review aims to systematically examine the efficacy and safety of [...] Read more.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has a strong evidence base for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), however, there is minimal research investigating the treatment of depression within the postpartum period. This systematic review aims to systematically examine the efficacy and safety of TMS when treating postpartum depression (PPD). Databases Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and PubMed were searched from inception to May 2021, to identify peer-reviewed papers assessing the administration of TMS for PPD treatment. Data were systematically extracted and evaluated regarding clinical psychiatric outcomes, social-relational outcomes, neuropsychological testing, and side effects. This systematic review included one randomised controlled trial, two open-label studies, two conference papers, and two case studies, providing data on 60 participants. TMS appears well tolerated, with no reported major adverse side effects. While the studies reported a general reduction in PPD symptoms, the poor quality of the evidence available indicates that TMS for PPD is unable to be currently recommended. However, the substantial evidence for TMS in the treatment of MDD and the differential response to antidepressant medication in PPD indicates that further research into TMS for PPD is warranted. Full article
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Article
A Polysomnographic and Cluster Analysis of Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep of Restless Legs Syndrome Patients with Psychiatric Conditions
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 250-264; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030019 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Only survey studies have linked specific individual psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and schizophrenia to Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep (PLMS) or both. We therefore aim to polysomnographically characterize sleep in a sample of physician-based, newly diagnosed cases [...] Read more.
Only survey studies have linked specific individual psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and schizophrenia to Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep (PLMS) or both. We therefore aim to polysomnographically characterize sleep in a sample of physician-based, newly diagnosed cases of RLS with various ICD-10 psychiatric diagnoses. Retrospective analysis of data from a convenience sample of psychiatric patients (n = 43) per standard clinical sleep disorder cut-offs was conducted. Next, a cluster analysis was performed on the sleep data, taking into account the psychiatric diagnosis, comorbid non-psychiatric somatic problems and medication. We found that 37.2% of our sample showed clinically significant PLMS ≥ 15 and 76.5% exhibited an apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5. Sleep structure was unaltered apart from the PLMS-related parameters. Two clusters were statistically identified: Cluster 1 primarily representing recurrent major depressive issues and Cluster 2 representing present but not predominant mood symptomatology as well as mixed disorders with personality problems. The known confounders were controlled. A PLMS index ≥ 15 was differentially distributed among the two clusters with Cluster 1: 10 out of 17 with PLMS index ≥ 15; Cluster 2: 1 out of 16 with PLMS index ≥15; whilst AHI was not different. Patients in Cluster 1 have a higher rate of periodic leg movements than patients in Cluster 2. This suggests that the high association with PLMS is primarily driven by affective disorders. Our findings warrant questioning of RLS symptomatology in patients with psychiatric conditions. Full article
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Article
Psychopathology and Neurocognition in the Era of the p-Factor: The Current Landscape and the Road Forward
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(3), 233-249; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030018 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
Neurocognitive abilities have frequently been claimed to be involved in the aetiology of psychopathology. Neurocognitive deficits have been reported across many disorders, and theoretical perspectives associate these deficits to the onset and maintenance of the symptomology. Recently, the heterogeneity of symptoms, and comorbidity [...] Read more.
Neurocognitive abilities have frequently been claimed to be involved in the aetiology of psychopathology. Neurocognitive deficits have been reported across many disorders, and theoretical perspectives associate these deficits to the onset and maintenance of the symptomology. Recently, the heterogeneity of symptoms, and comorbidity of disorders, have motivated the development of structural models of psychopathology. Structural models indicate that factors such as internalising, externalising, thought disorder and the p-factor account for a wide variety of symptomology. It is unclear how neurocognitive abilities are best examined within these structures to advance our understanding of psychopathology. In this paper, we use Caspi et al.’s seminal writings as a framework to describe how neurocognitive abilities have been previously associated with categorical disorders and recently associated, and claimed to drive, the factors of psychopathology. We discuss the implications of the p-factor as a substantive construct or statistical artefact, and how this impacts the exploration of neurocognitive abilities and psychopathology. Further, we provide the case for alternative structural approaches, describe an innovative hypothesis of neurocognitive functioning, the multidimensional hypothesis, and explain how this may further our understanding of the heterogeneity of neurocognitive performance and psychopathology at the individual level. Finally, we provide a road forward for the future examination of neurocognitive abilities in psychopathology. Full article
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