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Article

Psychopathology and Neurocognition in the Era of the p-Factor: The Current Landscape and the Road Forward

1
Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Population Health, Discipline of Psychology, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
2
WA Cancer Prevention Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Population Health, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
3
Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Population Health, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
4
Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin School of Nursing, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ana Adan
Received: 22 May 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
Neurocognitive abilities have frequently been claimed to be involved in the aetiology of psychopathology. Neurocognitive deficits have been reported across many disorders, and theoretical perspectives associate these deficits to the onset and maintenance of the symptomology. Recently, the heterogeneity of symptoms, and comorbidity of disorders, have motivated the development of structural models of psychopathology. Structural models indicate that factors such as internalising, externalising, thought disorder and the p-factor account for a wide variety of symptomology. It is unclear how neurocognitive abilities are best examined within these structures to advance our understanding of psychopathology. In this paper, we use Caspi et al.’s seminal writings as a framework to describe how neurocognitive abilities have been previously associated with categorical disorders and recently associated, and claimed to drive, the factors of psychopathology. We discuss the implications of the p-factor as a substantive construct or statistical artefact, and how this impacts the exploration of neurocognitive abilities and psychopathology. Further, we provide the case for alternative structural approaches, describe an innovative hypothesis of neurocognitive functioning, the multidimensional hypothesis, and explain how this may further our understanding of the heterogeneity of neurocognitive performance and psychopathology at the individual level. Finally, we provide a road forward for the future examination of neurocognitive abilities in psychopathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurocognition; executive function; psychopathology; multidimensional; p-factor; bifactor; correlated factors; s-1 bifactor; disorders neurocognition; executive function; psychopathology; multidimensional; p-factor; bifactor; correlated factors; s-1 bifactor; disorders
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MDPI and ACS Style

Haywood, D.; Baughman, F.D.; Mullan, B.A.; Heslop, K.R. Psychopathology and Neurocognition in the Era of the p-Factor: The Current Landscape and the Road Forward. Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2, 233-249. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030018

AMA Style

Haywood D, Baughman FD, Mullan BA, Heslop KR. Psychopathology and Neurocognition in the Era of the p-Factor: The Current Landscape and the Road Forward. Psychiatry International. 2021; 2(3):233-249. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haywood, Darren, Frank D. Baughman, Barbara A. Mullan, and Karen R. Heslop 2021. "Psychopathology and Neurocognition in the Era of the p-Factor: The Current Landscape and the Road Forward" Psychiatry International 2, no. 3: 233-249. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2030018

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