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Psychiatry Int., Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 5 articles

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Article
Causes and Risk Factor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Asylum Seekers and Refugees
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(4), 410-423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2040032 - 11 Nov 2021
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Objectives: To assess the causes and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult asylum seekers and refugees. To explore whether the causes and risk factors of PTSD between male and female adult refugees/asylum seekers are different. Study design: Systematic review of [...] Read more.
Objectives: To assess the causes and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult asylum seekers and refugees. To explore whether the causes and risk factors of PTSD between male and female adult refugees/asylum seekers are different. Study design: Systematic review of current literature. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up until February 2019. Method: A structured, systematic search was conducted of the relevant databases. Papers were excluded if they failed to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, a qualitative assessment was performed on the selected papers. Results: 12 Studies were included for the final analysis. All papers were either case studies/reports or cross-sectional studies. Traumatic events experienced by refugees/asylum seekers are the most frequently reported pre-migration causes of PTSD development, while acculturative stress is the most common post-migration stressor. There were mixed reports regarding the causes of PTSD between both genders of refugees/asylum seekers. Conclusions: This review’s findings have potential clinical application in terms of helping clinicians to risk stratify refugees/asylum seekers for PTSD development and thus aid in embarking on earlier intervention measures. However, more rigorous research similar to this study is needed for it to be implemented into clinical practice. Full article
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COVID-19 Pandemic and the Burden of Internet Addiction in the United States
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(4), 402-409; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2040031 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Despite the extensive usage of the internet, little is known about internet addiction among Americans during the pandemic. A valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via MTurk to recruit a national sample of adult Americans to understand the nature and extent of [...] Read more.
Despite the extensive usage of the internet, little is known about internet addiction among Americans during the pandemic. A valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via MTurk to recruit a national sample of adult Americans to understand the nature and extent of internet addiction. A total of 1305 individuals participated in the study where the majority were males (64%), whites (78%), non-Hispanic (70%), married (72%), 18–35 years old (57%), employed full time (86%), and with a Bachelor’s degree or higher (83%). The prevalence of internet addiction was distributed as no addiction (45%), probable addiction or risk of addiction (41%), and definite or severe addiction (14%). More than a fourth of the population had depression (28%) or anxiety (25%). Despite adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, definite/severe internet addiction was strongly predictive of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in multiple regression analyses. Those who were probably addicted or at risk of addiction were also more likely to have depression or anxiety. Compared to estimates before the pandemic, this study suggests an increase in internet addiction among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Population-based interventions and mental health promotion strategies should focus on a reduction in internet consumption and screen time. Full article
Review
Yoga as an Integrative Therapy for Mental Health Concerns: An Overview of Current Research Evidence
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(4), 386-401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2040030 - 20 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Background: Because the prevalence of mental health concerns is high and access or full responsiveness to pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatment for many individuals is low, there has been increased interest in yoga as a potential therapy for many mental health concerns. Approach: We [...] Read more.
Background: Because the prevalence of mental health concerns is high and access or full responsiveness to pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatment for many individuals is low, there has been increased interest in yoga as a potential therapy for many mental health concerns. Approach: We synthesize and critique current research on the efficacy of yoga relative to pharmacological approaches for anxiety disorders, mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders. Results: Yoga has been tested mostly as a complementary treatment to standard psychiatric and psychotherapeutic approaches. Findings from efficacy trials largely support the notion that yoga can help reduce symptoms of many psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms, above and beyond the effects achieved by standard pharmacological treatments alone; however, most evidence is of poor to moderate quality. Plausible transdiagnostic bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of yoga’s therapeutic effects have been advanced but remain untested. Conclusions: While results should be considered preliminary until more rigorous evidence is available, yoga appears to have the potential to provide many people suffering with psychiatric symptoms additional relief at relatively little cost. Yoga may be a viable complementary therapy to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic approaches for people with mental health challenges. Full article
Review
A Bibliometric Analysis of Dhat Syndrome
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(4), 379-385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2040029 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Dhat syndrome is a culture-bound syndrome, mostly prevailed in South East Asia that has been systematically defined approximately six decades ago. Assessment of the published literature would help to identify the research density as well as the gaps. We aim to do a [...] Read more.
Dhat syndrome is a culture-bound syndrome, mostly prevailed in South East Asia that has been systematically defined approximately six decades ago. Assessment of the published literature would help to identify the research density as well as the gaps. We aim to do a bibliometric analysis of published global scientific literature on dhat syndrome. The Scopus database was systematically searched by using the keywords “Dhat syndrome”, “Semen loss syndrome”, “Semen loss anxiety” from inception to 11th August 2021. A total of 89 articles on dhat syndrome were found in the Scopus database. Most of the articles were from India and were published in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and Asian Journal of Psychiatry. The majority (>58%) of research on dhat syndrome was published in the last decade. The PGIMER (Chandigarh), AIIMS (New Delhi) & KGMU (Lucknow) are the leading institutes in dhat syndrome research. The year 2004 had the highest number of total citations (n = 135), while the year 1975 had the highest number of citations per article (60 citations per article). This bibliometric review identified that despite dhat syndrome is a common condition in the South East Asian countries, research on the condition is limited. Full article
Review
Pharmacologic and Clinical Considerations of Nalmefene, a Long Duration Opioid Antagonist, in Opioid Overdose
Psychiatry Int. 2021, 2(4), 365-378; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/psychiatryint2040028 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Opioid use disorder is a well-established and growing problem in the United States. It is responsible for both psychosocial and physical damage to the affected individuals with a significant mortality rate. Given both the medical and non-medical consequences of this epidemic, it is [...] Read more.
Opioid use disorder is a well-established and growing problem in the United States. It is responsible for both psychosocial and physical damage to the affected individuals with a significant mortality rate. Given both the medical and non-medical consequences of this epidemic, it is important to understand the current treatments and approaches to opioid use disorder and acute opioid overdose. Naloxone is a competitive mu-opioid receptor antagonist that is used for the reversal of opioid intoxication. When given intravenously, naloxone has an onset of action of approximately 2 min with a duration of action of 60–90 min. Related to its empirical dosing and short duration of action, frequent monitoring of the patient is required so that the effects of opioid toxicity, namely respiratory depression, do not return to wreak havoc. Nalmefene is a pure opioid antagonist structurally similar to naltrexone that can serve as an alternative antidote for reversing respiratory depression associated with acute opioid overdose. Nalmefene is also known as 6-methylene naltrexone. Its main features of interest are its prolonged duration of action that surpasses most opioids and its ability to serve as an antidote for acute opioid overdose. This can be pivotal in reducing healthcare costs, increasing patient satisfaction, and redistributing the time that healthcare staff spend monitoring opioid overdose patients given naloxone. Full article
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