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Immuno, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 4 articles

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Review
Current Understanding of Novel Coronavirus: Molecular Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment Approaches
Immuno 2021, 1(1), 30-66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/immuno1010004 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
An outbreak of “Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology” occurred in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019. Later, the agent factor was identified and coined as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In a shorter [...] Read more.
An outbreak of “Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology” occurred in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019. Later, the agent factor was identified and coined as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In a shorter period, this newly emergent infection brought the world to a standstill. On 11 March 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Researchers across the globe have joined their hands to investigate SARS-CoV-2 in terms of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and deduce therapeutics to subjugate this infection. The researchers and scholars practicing different arts of medicine are on an extensive quest to come up with safer ways to curb the pathological implications of this viral infection. A huge number of clinical trials are underway from the branch of allopathy and naturopathy. Besides, a paradigm shift on cellular therapy and nano-medicine protocols has to be optimized for better clinical and functional outcomes of COVID-19-affected individuals. This article unveils a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis mode of spread, and various treatment modalities to combat COVID-19 disease. Full article
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Review
Potential Beneficial Effects of Vitamin K in SARS-CoV-2 Induced Vascular Disease?
Immuno 2021, 1(1), 17-29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/immuno1010003 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Prevalent coagulopathy and thromboembolism are observed in severe COVID-19 patients with 40% of COVID-19 mortality being associated with cardiovascular complications. Abnormal coagulation parameters are related to poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Victims also displayed presence of extensive thrombosis in infected lungs. Vitamin K [...] Read more.
Prevalent coagulopathy and thromboembolism are observed in severe COVID-19 patients with 40% of COVID-19 mortality being associated with cardiovascular complications. Abnormal coagulation parameters are related to poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Victims also displayed presence of extensive thrombosis in infected lungs. Vitamin K is well-known to play an essential role in the coagulation system. Latest study revealed an existing correlation between vitamin K deficiency and COVID-19 severity, highlighting a role of vitamin K, probably via coagulation modulation. In agreement, other recent studies also indicated that anti-coagulant treatments can reduce mortality in severe cases. Altogether, potential mechanisms linking COVID-19 with coagulopathy in which vitamin K may exert its modulating role in coagulation related with disease pathogenesis are established. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence supporting COVID-19 as a vascular disease and explore the potential benefits of using vitamin K against COVID-19 to improve disease outcomes. Full article
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Editorial
Immuno—A New Multidisciplinary Open Access Journal for Immunological Science and Medicine
Immuno 2021, 1(1), 15-16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/immuno1010002 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Welcome to Immuno [...] Full article
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Review
Reprogramming of Central Carbon Metabolism in Myeloid Cells upon Innate Immune Receptor Stimulation
Immuno 2021, 1(1), 1-14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/immuno1010001 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Immunometabolism is a relatively new field of research that aims at understanding interconnections between the immune system and cellular metabolism. This is now well-documented for innate immune cells of the myeloid lineage such as macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) when they engage [...] Read more.
Immunometabolism is a relatively new field of research that aims at understanding interconnections between the immune system and cellular metabolism. This is now well-documented for innate immune cells of the myeloid lineage such as macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) when they engage their differentiation or activation programs. Several studies have shown that stimulation of DCs or macrophages by the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leads to increased glycolytic activity and rewiring of central carbon metabolism. These metabolic modulations are essential to support and settle immunological functions by providing energy and immunoregulatory metabolites. As the understanding of molecular mechanisms progressed, significant differences between cell types and species have also been discovered. Pathways leading to the regulation of central carbon metabolism in macrophages and DCs by PRR signaling and consequences on cellular functions are reviewed here. Full article
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