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Tour. Hosp., Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Western 24-hour society poses great psychological and physical demands on people, which may result in stress or being overworked, and reduced immune fitness. Having a holiday may be a good way to reduce work-related stress and improve perceived immune fitness. A survey was held among young adults who went to Fiji for holiday or work. Both groups reported significantly improved immune fitness and significantly improved mood while in Fiji. The findings are of importance as they demonstrate that, in addition to leisure or being active, the observed health benefits provide an additional motive to have a holiday. View this paper.
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Review
Place Branding—The Challenges of Getting It Right: Coping with Success and Rebuilding from Crises
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 173-189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010010 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
A focus on continued year-on-year economic growth was beginning to be seen as unsustainable even before the COVID-19 crisis forced many tourism destinations to rethink their marketing and branding. This paper adopts a critical marketing stance to explore the relationship between place branding [...] Read more.
A focus on continued year-on-year economic growth was beginning to be seen as unsustainable even before the COVID-19 crisis forced many tourism destinations to rethink their marketing and branding. This paper adopts a critical marketing stance to explore the relationship between place branding and two recent extreme conditions affecting the tourism industry: overtourism, as exemplified when the issue became headline news in popular media from the summer of 2017, as many examples were offered of places struggling to cope with their success; and the COVID-19 crisis that effectively brought global tourism to a standstill in 2020, as the industry attempts to rebuild from this current unprecedented crisis. This article is not designed to suggest normative place-branding strategies. Rather, through the presentation of an original model that conceptualizes the cyclical process of rebuilding from crises and coping with success, it aims to provide a warning that whatever place-branding strategies are implemented in a post-pandemic world, for whatever type of tourism, in whatever type of destination, a rein must be employed in order that the drive for recovery from undertourism through successful place branding does not lead to the return of overtourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Tourism and Hospitality after COVID-19)
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Article
Using Systems Thinking to Improve Tourism and Hospitality Research Quality and Relevance: A Critical Review and Conceptual Analysis
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 153-172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010009 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
This paper argues that that much published tourism and hospitality research has had little influence on tourism or hospitality practice especially with regard to the problems of sustainability because of a failure to use systems thinking to guide research questions and approaches. This [...] Read more.
This paper argues that that much published tourism and hospitality research has had little influence on tourism or hospitality practice especially with regard to the problems of sustainability because of a failure to use systems thinking to guide research questions and approaches. This critical review and conceptual paper demonstrates how a systems thinking approach could be used to improve both the relevance of, and theoretical development in, tourism and hospitality research in the area of sustainability. This paper reviewed recent published research into tourism’s social impacts to demonstrate the power of taking a systems approach to map out the research problem area. It then critically reviewed the use of concepts from psychology in published research into guest engagement in sustainability programs in hospitality businesses to demonstrate the value of systems thinking for organising theoretical concepts. In both of the reviewed areas the overwhelming conclusion was that the majority of the research lacked both practical relevance and was based on inappropriate or deficient theoretical understanding. Full article
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Article
Jewish Heritage Tourism in Krakow. Authenticity and Commodification Issues
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 140-152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010008 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 628
Abstract
Tourism destinations located within rich and complex cultural contexts tend to offer a wide range of different experiences to visitors, spanning from standardized to more alternative ones. The quest for authenticity is central in the construction of tourism image and business, but easily [...] Read more.
Tourism destinations located within rich and complex cultural contexts tend to offer a wide range of different experiences to visitors, spanning from standardized to more alternative ones. The quest for authenticity is central in the construction of tourism image and business, but easily raises questions related to appropriation, commercialization and trivialization. This study focuses on Jewish heritage tourism, a niche segment gradually turning into a mass tourism experience, through a qualitative research made in Krakow, Poland. Jewish-themed tourism in the area has gone through intense growth in spite of its dwindling Jewish population. As a consequence, the representation and consumption of the related heritage mostly occurs independently from the Jewish community itself and shows clear signs of commercial exploitation. The study results show that, in spite of the issues related to simplified narratives and staged practices, commodification, with its partial and functional reconstruction of the past, does not interfere with the religious or secular activities of the Jewish community, which is more pragmatically focused on present-day life. Full article
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Article
Detecting Tourism Typologies of Regional Destinations Based on Their Spatio-Temporal and Socioeconomic Performance: A Correlation-Based Complex Network Approach for the Case of Greece
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 113-139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010007 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 749
Abstract
Within the context that tourism-seasonality is a composite phenomenon described by temporal, geographical, and socio-economic aspects, this article develops a multilevel method for studying time patterns of tourism-seasonality in conjunction with its spatial dimension and socio-economic dimension. The study aims to classify the [...] Read more.
Within the context that tourism-seasonality is a composite phenomenon described by temporal, geographical, and socio-economic aspects, this article develops a multilevel method for studying time patterns of tourism-seasonality in conjunction with its spatial dimension and socio-economic dimension. The study aims to classify the temporal patterns of seasonality into regional groups and to configure distinguishable seasonal profiles facilitating tourism policy and development. The study applies a multilevel pattern recognition approach incorporating time-series assessment, correlation, and complex network analysis based on community detection with the use of the modularity optimization algorithm, on data of overnight-stays recorded for the time-period 1998–2018. The analysis reveals four groups of seasonality, which are described by distinct seasonal, geographical, and socio-economic profiles. Overall, the analysis supports multidisciplinary and synthetic research in the modeling of tourism research and promotes complex network analysis in the study of socio-economic systems, by providing insights into the physical conceptualization that the community detection based on the modularity optimization algorithm can enjoy to the real-world applications. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Having a Holiday or Work in Fiji on Perceived Immune Fitness
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 95-112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010006 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 619
Abstract
The Western 24 h society poses great psychological and physical demands on people, which may result in complaints such as stress or being overworked, and reduced immune fitness. Having a holiday may be a good way to reduce work-related stress and reduced mood [...] Read more.
The Western 24 h society poses great psychological and physical demands on people, which may result in complaints such as stress or being overworked, and reduced immune fitness. Having a holiday may be a good way to reduce work-related stress and reduced mood and improve perceived immune fitness. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the impact of having a holiday or work on perceived immune fitness and mood. A survey was held among N = 246 young adults who were on holiday in Fiji, and N = 87 subjects who were in Fiji for work. The sample comprised both students and individuals with a job at home. Past year immune status was assessed with the Immune Status Questionnaire (ISQ). Current perceived immune functioning and mood were rated from 0 (very poor) to 10 (excellent). Assessments were made for two occasions: (1) the current situation (in Fiji), and (2) at home (before traveling). Compared to being at home, both students and working individuals on holiday in Fiji reported significantly improved immune fitness and significantly improved mood. For example, both groups reported reduction of stress of about 60% while in Fiji. In students who came to Fiji for work or spending a holiday, improvements in perceived immune fitness were more pronounced than in working people coming on holiday in Fiji. In contrast, working people on holiday reported greater improvements in mood compared to students. The magnitude of improvements were significantly greater among women than men. In conclusion, the data suggest that both having a holiday or working in Fiji is associated with significant improvements of mood, which were themselves associated with improved immune fitness. The findings are of importance for the tourism industry as they demonstrate that, in addition to leisure (or being active) as a purpose for having a holiday, the observed mental health benefits and improved perceived immune fitness provide an additional motive to have a holiday. Full article
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Article
Conceptualization and Realization of a National Trail in a Small Island-Nation: The Commonwealth of Dominica’s Experience
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 79-94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010005 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The island-nation of Dominica, 790 km2 in area, is located approximately 1126.5 km Southeast of Florida, USA. In the mid-1990s, Dominica embarked on developing the 183.5 km Waitukubuli National Trail (WNT), the first and only national trail model in the Eastern Caribbean. [...] Read more.
The island-nation of Dominica, 790 km2 in area, is located approximately 1126.5 km Southeast of Florida, USA. In the mid-1990s, Dominica embarked on developing the 183.5 km Waitukubuli National Trail (WNT), the first and only national trail model in the Eastern Caribbean. The 14-segment WNT, officially opened in May 2013, passes through some of the island’s most diverse landscapes. WNT was designed to link as many rural communities as possible and promote ecotourism and community socioeconomic development. Rehabilitation work continues on the WNT and the rest of Dominica, following the devastation caused by Hurricane Maria of 2017. This article, based primarily on a limited questionnaire survey, selected interviews, and literature review, explored the research question ‘What were the challenges faced by a small-island nation in the development of a National Trail? Five specific research objectives focused on the conceptualization, implementation challenges, partnerships fostered, national and sub-regional significance, and future outlook of the Trail were considered. Questionnaire respondents identified the island’s topography and negotiations with private landowners as significant trail construction challenges. A 100% of survey respondents anticipate that reliable funding to support timely maintenance would likely be a critical future issue. Some respondents identified marketing, public engagement, and visitor safety as potential issues. Face-to-face interviews found strong support for the WNT. The interviewees were confident that Dominica would realize sustainable socioeconomic benefits from the Trail. The article concludes with lessons learned and proposes strategies and research themes to ensure the Trail’s sustainability. Full article
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Article
Measuring Online Destination Image, Satisfaction, and Loyalty: Evidence from Barcelona Districts
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 62-78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010004 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
The relationships between destination image and tourist satisfaction and loyalty have been studied extensively through surveys. This study aims to measure these constructs through big data analytics by going one step further in a line of research undertaken 8 years ago. The data [...] Read more.
The relationships between destination image and tourist satisfaction and loyalty have been studied extensively through surveys. This study aims to measure these constructs through big data analytics by going one step further in a line of research undertaken 8 years ago. The data source is content generated by travelers and shared on social media regarding the 10 districts of the city of Barcelona (Catalonia): more than 750,000 online travel reviews (OTRs) hosted on the Airbnb platform. This study also explores a relationship demonstrated by numerous researchers through surveys: the impact of destination image on tourist loyalty through satisfaction. However, the results are not satisfactory due to the great weight of the lodging price variable that unbalances the relationship. For example, the first district in the ranking of cognitive image categories is also the first in the ranking of average scores and of positive feelings and moods. However, the last two districts in the ranking of cognitive categories are the first in the rankings of satisfaction, positive recommendations, and cheaper prices. Additionally, the findings show that the location of the accommodation significantly determines the theme of the OTR narrative. Moreover, the results confirm previous studies on the exaggerated positivity of peer-to-peer accommodation scores: only 0.92% of 15,625 rated properties had negative overall scores. Full article
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Article
Co-Creating New Directions for Service Robots in Hospitality and Tourism
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 43-61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010003 - 02 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Research on the relationship between automation services and tourism has been rapidly growing in recent years and has led to a new service landscape where the role of robots is gaining both practical and research attention. This paper builds on previous reviews and [...] Read more.
Research on the relationship between automation services and tourism has been rapidly growing in recent years and has led to a new service landscape where the role of robots is gaining both practical and research attention. This paper builds on previous reviews and undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the research literature to discuss opportunities and challenges presented by the use of service robots in hospitality and tourism. Management and ethical issues are identified and it is noted that practical and ethical issues (roboethics) continue to lack attention. Going forward, new directions are urgently needed to inform future research and practice. Legal and ethical issues must be proactively addressed, and new research paradigms developed to explore the posthumanist and transhumanist transitions that await. In addition, closer attention to the potential of “co-creation” for addressing innovations in enhanced service experiences in hospitality and tourism is merited. Among others, responsibility, inclusiveness and collaborative human-robot design and implementation emerge as important principles to guide future research and practice in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations as a Factor of Competitiveness in Tourism)
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Article
Augmenting the Role of Tourism Governance in Addressing Destination Justice, Ethics, and Equity for Sustainable Community-Based Tourism
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 15-42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010002 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Sustainable tourism development (STD) serves as a founding and guiding concept that can be applied to all forms of tourism, whereas community-based tourism (CBT) has been largely practiced as an alternative form of tourism development. Past research has suggested critical theoretical and practical [...] Read more.
Sustainable tourism development (STD) serves as a founding and guiding concept that can be applied to all forms of tourism, whereas community-based tourism (CBT) has been largely practiced as an alternative form of tourism development. Past research has suggested critical theoretical and practical omissions in both STD and CBT related to issues of community well-being, justice, ethics, and equity. With an objective of bridging these gaps, this research developed an integrated framework of sustainable community-based tourism (SCBT) based on a comprehensive literature review, which identified that there was a significant under-representation of key elements such as justice, ethics, and equity in the domain of governance both in the STD and CBT literatures. The qualitative research mixed emergent data with theory driven data and conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 diverse tourism stakeholders in the twin cities of Bryan–College Station (BCS) in Texas. Results revealed that tourism helped to promote cultural preservation and community pride and promoted the sense of mutual respect and understanding among visitors and stakeholders. However, some ethnic minorities felt they were not receiving full benefits of tourism. The study concluded that a more proactive, inclusive, ethic of care oriented tourism governance to help ensure sustainable tourism development is needed. Full article
Article
Traveler Motivation and Destination Loyalty: Visiting Sacred Places in Central Asia
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(1), 1-14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tourhosp2010001 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
Visiting sacred spaces is becoming a growing trend in tourism in the Central Asian region. Sacred sites are said to have the power to heal the body, enlighten the mind, and inspire the heart. This study explored the motivations for visiting sacred spaces [...] Read more.
Visiting sacred spaces is becoming a growing trend in tourism in the Central Asian region. Sacred sites are said to have the power to heal the body, enlighten the mind, and inspire the heart. This study explored the motivations for visiting sacred spaces among tourists from three Central Asian countries—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. The study used a sequential mixed methods research design. In the first stage, a general list of motivations was produced, based on the analysis of 14 semi-structured interviews. The second stage quantitative survey was conducted with a sample of 211 tourists from Central Asia. Data collection took place during tours to sacred sites in the city of Turkestan in South Kazakhstan. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and regression analysis. The relationships between motivation factors and destination loyalty were tested. The results show that among the five motivational factors identified in this study, only three (Spiritual and Religious Motives, Cultural and Historical Motives, and Wellness and Healing) have a significant relationship with sacred site destination loyalty. The remaining two factors (Nature, Fun, and Social Contact) have not been proven to have a significant relationship with destination loyalty. The study adds value to the literature on traveling to religious sites, especially those in formerly atheist countries, and provides recommendations to practitioners and policymakers to enable them to develop a niche tourism area by segmenting tourists’ motivations and destination loyalty in their sacred places. It also contributes to the diversification of tourism products in those destinations that have historical religious heritage resources. Full article
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