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Hemato, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2020) – 4 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity Is Increased in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients
Hemato 2020, 1(2), 77-85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato1020011 - 11 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Tryptophan (TRP) metabolism via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) subset of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway is one of the most important mechanisms of immune escape in cancer. TRP is converted into several biologically active KYN metabolites. However, the role of KYN metabolic products and [...] Read more.
Tryptophan (TRP) metabolism via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) subset of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway is one of the most important mechanisms of immune escape in cancer. TRP is converted into several biologically active KYN metabolites. However, the role of KYN metabolic products and related enzymes has not been clarified in patients with hematological malignant tumors. Here, we examined the serum concentrations of TRP, KYN, and the KYN metabolites kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in 157 patients stratified into five different hematological malignant tumors. KYN was the most abundant product of the TRP metabolic pathway among all five diagnostic categories. Serum KYN was increased in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. The KYN/TRP ratio was significantly higher in MDS patients than in acute myeloid leukemia patients. In conclusion, IDO activity is increased in MDS patients, and IDO inhibitors might represent a new therapeutic approach for MDS treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chronic Myeloid Disease)
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Open AccessReview
The Management of Hematologic Patients with Bloodstream Infections Due to Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria: Where Do We Stand? From Antibacterial Prophylaxis to the Treatment of Septic Shock
Hemato 2020, 1(2), 60-76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato1020010 - 25 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Bloodstream infection (BSI) and septic shock represent one of the major limiting factors for the successful treatment of patients affected by hematologic malignancies. During the most recent years we have documented a shift in the epidemiology of bacterial infections toward a consistent rise [...] Read more.
Bloodstream infection (BSI) and septic shock represent one of the major limiting factors for the successful treatment of patients affected by hematologic malignancies. During the most recent years we have documented a shift in the epidemiology of bacterial infections toward a consistent rise of Gram-negative rods. In addition, the emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria is considered a life-threatening condition requiring a multi-disciplinary approach. Aim of present review is to summarize the most recent approaches in terms of anti-microbial prophylaxis and treatment of BSI in hematologic patients with neutropenic fever. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Hemato)
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Open AccessArticle
Passive Coagulability Assay Based on Coherence-Gated Light Scattering
Hemato 2020, 1(2), 49-59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato1020009 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Coagulation monitoring relies on in vitro tests where the clot formation is induced using external stimuli. We report an optical method capable of revealing the propensity of coagulation based solely on the natural dynamics of erythrocytes in whole blood. In contrast to traditional [...] Read more.
Coagulation monitoring relies on in vitro tests where the clot formation is induced using external stimuli. We report an optical method capable of revealing the propensity of coagulation based solely on the natural dynamics of erythrocytes in whole blood. In contrast to traditional techniques, our approach provides means to assess the blood coagulability without the need to chemically trigger the coagulation. Results of correlations with standard clinical methods suggest that this optical assay could be used for continuous management of blood coagulation during clinical procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coagulation)
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Open AccessReview
The Next Step for MRD in Myeloma? Treating MRD Relapse after First Line Treatment in the REMNANT Study
Hemato 2020, 1(2), 36-48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato1020008 - 24 Sep 2020
Viewed by 692
Abstract
The treatment approach for multiple myeloma (MM) has changed in recent years. After the approval of maintenance treatment after stem cell transplant in younger patients, the paradigm of continuous treatment is now prevailing in all clinical situations of myeloma. However, the best time [...] Read more.
The treatment approach for multiple myeloma (MM) has changed in recent years. After the approval of maintenance treatment after stem cell transplant in younger patients, the paradigm of continuous treatment is now prevailing in all clinical situations of myeloma. However, the best time to initiate relapse treatment is still unclear. With increased frequency of minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity, and the established clinical benefit of this finding, one of the large clinical questions in myeloma is how to approach MRD re-appearance. In this paper, we go through the MRD technology, existing and possible uses of MRD in the clinic, and data for early treatment before we introduce the design of the ongoing REMNANT study; a randomized study with early treatment of MRD relapse after first line treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Hemato)
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