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Hemato, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 9 articles

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Article
Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived CXCL12, IL-6 and GDF-15 and Their Capacity to Support IgG-Secreting Cells in Culture Are Divergently Affected by Doxorubicin
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 154-166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2010009 - 13 Mar 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Various subsets of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM MSCs), including fibroblasts, endothelial, fat and reticular cells, are implicated in the regulation of the hematopoietic microenvironment and the survival of long-lived antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). Nowadays it is widely acknowledged that vaccine-induced protective antibody [...] Read more.
Various subsets of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM MSCs), including fibroblasts, endothelial, fat and reticular cells, are implicated in the regulation of the hematopoietic microenvironment and the survival of long-lived antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). Nowadays it is widely acknowledged that vaccine-induced protective antibody levels are diminished in adults and children that are treated for hematological cancers. A reason behind this could be damage to the BM MSC niche leading to a diminished pool of ASCs. To this end, we asked whether cell cytotoxic treatment alters the capacity of human BM MSCs to support the survival of ASCs. To investigate how chemotherapy affects soluble factors related to the ASC niche, we profiled a large number of cytokines and chemokines from in vitro-expanded MSCs from healthy donors or children who were undergoing therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), following exposure to a widely used anthracycline called doxorubicin (Doxo). In addition, we asked if the observed changes in the measured soluble factors after Doxo exposure impacted the ability of the BM niche to support humoral immunity by co-culturing Doxo-exposed BM MSCs with in vitro-differentiated ASCs from healthy blood donors, and selective neutralization of cytokines. Our in vitro results imply that Doxo-induced alterations in BM MSC-derived interleukin 6 (IL-6), CXCL12 and growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) are not sufficient to disintegrate the support of IgG-producing ASCs by the BM MSC niche, and that serological memory loss may arise during later stages of ALL therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Therapy: A Themed Honorary Issue to Prof. Luc Douay)
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Review
Precision Medicine Treatment in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Is Not a Dream
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 131-153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2010008 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
The development of molecular studies to define the somatic genetic alterations has revolutionized the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is a highly heterogenous disease that includes many molecular subtypes; each subtype is heterogeneous both for the presence of [...] Read more.
The development of molecular studies to define the somatic genetic alterations has revolutionized the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is a highly heterogenous disease that includes many molecular subtypes; each subtype is heterogeneous both for the presence of variable co-mutations and complex combinations of clones and subclones, changing during disease evolution and in response to treatment. The treatment of AML is changing from standardized schemes of induction and consolidation chemotherapy to tailored approaches according to molecular and genetic profiles and to targeted therapy. Several molecularly targeted therapies have been approved for the treatment of some AML patients, including mutation-specific targeted drugs such as FLT3, IDH1 and IDH2 inhibitors, mutation-independent targeted drugs such as the Bcl2 inhibitor venetoclax, the hedgehog inhibitor glasdegib and the CD33-targeted drug gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Furthermore, recent studies have shown the feasibility of a personalized medicine approach for the treatment of AML patients, where the therapy decisions are guided by the results of genomic studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia)
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Review
Immunotherapy with Antibodies in Multiple Myeloma: Monoclonals, Bispecifics, and Immunoconjugates
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 116-130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2010007 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 753
Abstract
In the 2010s, immunotherapy revolutionized the treatment landscape of multiple myeloma. CD38-targeting antibodies were initially applied as monotherapy in end-stage patients, but are now also approved by EMA/FDA in combination with standards-of-care in newly diagnosed disease or in patients with early relapse. The [...] Read more.
In the 2010s, immunotherapy revolutionized the treatment landscape of multiple myeloma. CD38-targeting antibodies were initially applied as monotherapy in end-stage patients, but are now also approved by EMA/FDA in combination with standards-of-care in newly diagnosed disease or in patients with early relapse. The approved SLAMF7-targeting antibody can also be successfully combined with lenalidomide or pomalidomide in relapsed/refractory myeloma. Although this has resulted in improved clinical outcomes, there remains a high unmet need in patients who become refractory to immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors and CD38-targeting antibodies. Several new antibody formats, such as antibody–drug conjugates (e.g., belantamab mafodotin, which was approved in 2020 and targets BCMA) and T cell redirecting bispecific antibodies (e.g., teclistamab, talquetamab, cevostamab, AMG-420, and CC-93269) are active in these triple-class refractory patients. Based on their promising efficacy, it is expected that these new antibody formats will also be combined with other agents in earlier disease settings. Full article
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Commentary
On the Shoulders of a Giant: Contributions of Thomas Grogan, MD to Hematopathology
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 103-115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2010006 - 28 Feb 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The story of Thomas Grogan, MD is one of the most compelling narratives in the modern history of pathology. Progressing from a quintessential academic pathologist to an entrepreneur and a renowned inventor, his remarkable journey is one of creativity, courage, and a keen [...] Read more.
The story of Thomas Grogan, MD is one of the most compelling narratives in the modern history of pathology. Progressing from a quintessential academic pathologist to an entrepreneur and a renowned inventor, his remarkable journey is one of creativity, courage, and a keen focus on improving the care of cancer patients. By enabling precision health and empowering the pathologist in that mission, he transformed the landscape of diagnostic pathology. In this review, we describe some of his salient contributions and how his vision has shaped and continues to shape hematopathology today. Full article
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Review
Decades of Progress in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 89-102; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2010005 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in multiple myeloma has evolved over the decades. Myeloablative regimens have been replaced by the reduced intensity and non-myeloablative conditionings to reduce treatment-related toxicity and mortality while sparing graft-vs.-myeloma effects. Newer agents with potent anti-myeloma activity are not mutually [...] Read more.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in multiple myeloma has evolved over the decades. Myeloablative regimens have been replaced by the reduced intensity and non-myeloablative conditionings to reduce treatment-related toxicity and mortality while sparing graft-vs.-myeloma effects. Newer agents with potent anti-myeloma activity are not mutually exclusive and the combination with an allograft may improve long-term outcomes in this incurable disease especially in high-risk patients. Allografting may also be a platform for other promising new cell therapies such as CAR T-cells, NK-, and CAR NK-cells. These studies are warranted in the context of clinical trials. This review highlights the progress that has been made over the decades and possible future roles of allografting in the treatment landscape of multiple myeloma Full article
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Commentary
Recent Advancements in Hematology: Knowledge, Methods and Dissemination, Part 2
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 79-88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2010004 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Recent Advancements in Hematology: Knowledge, Methods and Dissemination is a series of commentary article which is published on a biannual basis by the editorial board of the journal Hemato [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Hemato)
Review
Individualised Risk Assessments for Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism: New Frontiers in the Era of Direct Oral Anticoagulants
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 64-78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2010003 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with high recurrence rates. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in the 2010s has changed the landscape of VTE management. DOACs have become the preferred anticoagulant therapy for [...] Read more.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with high recurrence rates. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in the 2010s has changed the landscape of VTE management. DOACs have become the preferred anticoagulant therapy for their ease of use, predictable pharmacokinetics, and improved safety profile. Increasingly, guidelines have recommended long term anticoagulation for some indications such as following first unprovoked major VTE, although an objective individualised risk assessment for VTE recurrence remains elusive. The balance of preventing VTE recurrence needs to be weighed against the not insignificant bleeding risk, which is cumulative with prolonged use. Hence, there is a need for an individualised, targeted approach for assessing the risk of VTE recurrence, especially in those patients in whom the balance between benefit and risk of long-term anticoagulation is not clear. Clinical factors alone do not provide the level of discrimination required on an individual level. Laboratory data from global coagulation assays and biomarkers may provide enhanced risk assessment ability and are an active area of research. A review of the prediction models and biomarkers for assessing VTE recurrence risk is provided, with an emphasis on contemporary developments in the era of DOACs and global coagulation assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Associated Coagulation)
Review
Impaired Hematopoiesis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Its Pathogenesis and Potential Treatments
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 43-63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2010002 - 02 Jan 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Impaired hematopoiesis is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Bone marrow aplasia and peripheral cytopenias arise from primary and secondary graft failure or primary and secondary poor graft function. Chimerism analysis is useful to discriminate these conditions. By determining [...] Read more.
Impaired hematopoiesis is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Bone marrow aplasia and peripheral cytopenias arise from primary and secondary graft failure or primary and secondary poor graft function. Chimerism analysis is useful to discriminate these conditions. By determining the pathogenesis of impaired hematopoiesis, a timely and appropriate treatment can be performed. Hematopoietic system principally consists of hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow microenvironment termed niches. Abnormality in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and/or abnormality in the relevant niches give rise to hematological diseases. Allo-HSCT is intended to cure each hematological disease, replacing abnormal hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow niches with hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow niches derived from normal donors. Therefore, treatment for graft failure and poor graft function after allo-HSCT is required to proceed based on determining the pathogenesis of impaired hematopoiesis. Recent progress in this area suggests promising treatment manipulations for graft failure and poor graft function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Therapy: A Themed Honorary Issue to Prof. Luc Douay)
Review
Why Immunotherapy Fails in Multiple Myeloma
Hemato 2021, 2(1), 1-42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease despite great advances in its therapeutic landscape. Increasing evidence supports the belief that immune dysfunction plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis, progression, and drug resistance. Recent efforts have focused on harnessing the immune system to [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease despite great advances in its therapeutic landscape. Increasing evidence supports the belief that immune dysfunction plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis, progression, and drug resistance. Recent efforts have focused on harnessing the immune system to exert anti-myeloma effects with encouraging outcomes. First-in-class anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, daratumumab, now forms part of standard treatment regimens in relapsed and refractory settings and is shifting to front-line treatments. However, a non-negligible number of patients will progress and be triple refractory from the first line of treatment. Antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are being developed in a heavily pretreated setting with outstanding results. Belantamab mafodotin-blmf has already received approval and other anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) therapies (CARs and bispecific antibodies are expected to be integrated in therapeutic options against myeloma soon. Nonetheless, immunotherapy faces different challenges in terms of efficacy and safety, and manufacturing and economic drawbacks associated with such a line of therapy pose additional obstacles to broadening its use. In this review, we described the most important clinical data on immunotherapeutic agents, delineated the limitations that lie in immunotherapy, and provided potential insights to overcome such issues. Full article
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