The development of molecular studies to define the somatic genetic alterations has revolutionized the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is a highly heterogenous disease that includes many molecular subtypes; each subtype is heterogeneous both for the presence of variable co-mutations and complex combinations of clones and subclones, changing during disease evolution and in response to treatment. The treatment of AML is changing from standardized schemes of induction and consolidation chemotherapy to tailored approaches according to molecular and genetic profiles and to targeted therapy. Several molecularly targeted therapies have been approved for the treatment of some AML patients, including mutation-specific targeted drugs such as FLT3, IDH1 and IDH2 inhibitors, mutation-independent targeted drugs such as the Bcl2 inhibitor venetoclax, the hedgehog inhibitor glasdegib and the CD33-targeted drug gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Furthermore, recent studies have shown the feasibility of a personalized medicine approach for the treatment of AML patients, where the therapy decisions are guided by the results of genomic studies.
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