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Hemato, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 4 articles

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Review
Current Status of CAR-T Cell Therapy in Multiple Myeloma
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 660-671; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2040043 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 172
Abstract
Current data on CAR-T cell-based therapy is really promising in multiple myeloma, especially in terms of response. In heavily pretreated patients, who have already received proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies, current trials report an overall response rate ranging from 81 to [...] Read more.
Current data on CAR-T cell-based therapy is really promising in multiple myeloma, especially in terms of response. In heavily pretreated patients, who have already received proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies, current trials report an overall response rate ranging from 81 to 97% and 45 to 67% of complete remission rates. Data are less encouraging in terms of duration of response, although most recent trials have shown significant improvements in terms of event-free survival, with medians ranging from 8 to 14 months and up to 77% progression-free survival at 12 months with an acceptable toxicity profile. These data will be consolidated in future years and will provide new evidence on the best timing for CAR-T cell therapy. Moreover, new CAR-T designs are underway and will challenge the current results. Full article
Review
Light Chain Stabilization: A Therapeutic Approach to Ameliorate AL Amyloidosis
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 645-659; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2040042 - 05 Oct 2021
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Non-native immunoglobulin light chain conformations, including aggregates, appear to cause light chain amyloidosis pathology. Despite significant progress in pharmacological eradication of the neoplastic plasma cells that secrete these light chains, in many patients impaired organ function remains. The impairment is apparently due to [...] Read more.
Non-native immunoglobulin light chain conformations, including aggregates, appear to cause light chain amyloidosis pathology. Despite significant progress in pharmacological eradication of the neoplastic plasma cells that secrete these light chains, in many patients impaired organ function remains. The impairment is apparently due to a subset of resistant plasma cells that continue to secrete misfolding-prone light chains. These light chains are susceptible to the proteolytic cleavage that may enable light chain aggregation. We propose that small molecules that preferentially bind to the natively folded state of full-length light chains could act as pharmacological kinetic stabilizers, protecting light chains against unfolding, proteolysis and aggregation. Although the sequence of the pathological light chain is unique to each patient, fortunately light chains have highly conserved residues that form binding sites for small molecule kinetic stabilizers. We envision that such stabilizers could complement existing and emerging therapies to benefit light chain amyloidosis patients. Full article
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Article
MRI versus CT and PET/CT in the Preoperative Assessment of Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 635-644; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2040041 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 179
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare CT, MRI, and PET/CT in detecting lymphadenopathies and extra-nodal lesions in lymphoma and in disease staging. (2) Methods: Inclusion criteria were the availability of TB (Total Body) CT and/or PET/CT performed before [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare CT, MRI, and PET/CT in detecting lymphadenopathies and extra-nodal lesions in lymphoma and in disease staging. (2) Methods: Inclusion criteria were the availability of TB (Total Body) CT and/or PET/CT performed before treatment; MRI performed no later than 2 weeks after TBCT; histological confirmation of lymphoma; clinical-diagnostic follow-up. Using these criteria, we included 64/353 patients with TBCT and MRI performed at our hospital; 20/64 had PET/CT performed in other hospitals. Histology and follow-up were gold standard. (3) Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in lymph nodes detection was 84.5%, 94.4%, and 91% for CT and 95%, 98.9%, and 95.6% for MRI. High agreement was observed between CT and MRI regarding the number and size of positive lymph nodes and for disease staging. MRI identified eight more extra-nodal lesions than CT. In the subgroup of 20 patients, PET/CT did not show a significant superiority in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and staging ability than CT and MRI. (4) Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a mild superiority of MRI over CT in lymphoma staging. Although PET/CT remains the reference standard, MRI demonstrated a similar diagnostic accuracy, with the added value of being radiation-free. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Radiolabeled Blood Elements and Other Imaging Modalities)
Review
Is It Time for a More Holistic Approach to the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma?
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 628-634; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hemato2040040 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 211
Abstract
In the UK, approximately 5820 new cases of multiple myeloma (MM) are diagnosed each year. This number has increased by a third since the early 1990s. Considerable progress has been achieved in our ability to treat MM as a result of the development [...] Read more.
In the UK, approximately 5820 new cases of multiple myeloma (MM) are diagnosed each year. This number has increased by a third since the early 1990s. Considerable progress has been achieved in our ability to treat MM as a result of the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. MM is a disease more commonly seen in elderly individuals who frequently have pre-existing co-morbidities and are subject to social pressures that impact adversely on their quality of life (QOL). As their lives are extended by more effective treatment of MM, there is a greater need to address such issues. This review will focus on the holistic needs of a patient with MM, and how all members of the multidisciplinary team have a role. The aim is to advocate for centres to support MM patients to live well with their condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plasma Cell Disorders)
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