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BioChem, Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2021) – 5 articles

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Article
Biological Evaluation of Alkyl Triphenylphosphonium Ostruthin Derivatives as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Agents Targeting the Nuclear Factor κB Signaling Pathway in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells
BioChem 2021, 1(2), 107-121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biochem1020010 - 02 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Ostruthin (6-geranyl-7-hydroxycoumarin) is one of the constituents isolated from Paramignya trimera and has been classified as a simple coumarin. We recently reported the synthesis of alkyl triphenylphosphonium (TPP) derivatives from ostruthin and evaluated their anticancer activities. In the present study, we demonstrated that [...] Read more.
Ostruthin (6-geranyl-7-hydroxycoumarin) is one of the constituents isolated from Paramignya trimera and has been classified as a simple coumarin. We recently reported the synthesis of alkyl triphenylphosphonium (TPP) derivatives from ostruthin and evaluated their anticancer activities. In the present study, we demonstrated that alkyl TPP ostruthin derivatives inhibited the up-regulation of cell-surface intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) without affecting cell viability, while ostruthin itself exerted cytotoxicity against A549 cells. The heptyl TPP ostruthin derivative (termed OS8) attenuated the up-regulation of ICAM-1 mRNA expression at concentrations higher than 40 µM in TNF-α-stimulated A549 cells. OS8 inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-responsive luciferase reporter activity at concentrations higher than 40 µM, but did not affect the translocation of the NF-κB subunit RelA in response to the TNF-α stimulation at concentrations up to 100 µM. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that OS8 at 100 µM prevented the binding of RelA to the ICAM-1 promoter. We also showed that OS8 at 100 µM inhibited the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of RelA at Ser 536. Moreover, the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of an inhibitor of NF-κB α and extracellular signal-regulated kinase was reduced by OS8. These results indicate that OS8 has potential as an anti-inflammatory agent that targets the NF-κB signaling pathway. Full article
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Article
Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteocytic Cell Death in a Hypoxic Environment Is Associated with Necroptosis
BioChem 2021, 1(2), 98-106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biochem1020009 - 30 Aug 2021
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Abstract
Neither the underlying pathophysiology of nor prophylactic strategies for glucocorticoid-associated femoral head osteonecrosis have yet been established. In neurovascular and cardiac ischemic disorders, necroptosis has been reported as a new concept of cell death. Here we investigated the involvement of necroptosis in glucocorticoid-induced [...] Read more.
Neither the underlying pathophysiology of nor prophylactic strategies for glucocorticoid-associated femoral head osteonecrosis have yet been established. In neurovascular and cardiac ischemic disorders, necroptosis has been reported as a new concept of cell death. Here we investigated the involvement of necroptosis in glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis in vitro, the putative cause of which is ischemia. Murine osteocytic cells (MLO-Y4) to which 1 µM dexamethasone (Dex) was added and were cultured in 1% O2 (hypoxia) are thought to resemble the in vivo environment in which glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis occurs (H-D stress environment). Using such cells cultured for 24 h (Dex(+)/hypoxia(+) group), immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting were performed with receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 and RIP3, which are necroptosis expression factors. In addition, the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) was added to Dex(+)/hypoxia(+) and cultured for 12 h and 24 h. Then using an Apoptotic/Necrotic Cells Detection Kit the numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells were counted and compared. In Dex(+)/hypoxia(+) group, expression of both RIP1 and RIP3 was found. Additionally, in Western blotting, the addition of Nec-1 attenuated their expression. A decrease in the number of cell deaths was also found following Nec-1 administration. Necroptosis has been implicated as a cause of death in osteocytic cell necrosis. Use of the necroptosis inhibitor, Nec-1, suggests a possible approach to preventing osteocytic cell necrosis even in an H-D stress environment when given within 12 h. Full article
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Article
Purification and Characterization of Antibodies Directed against the α-Gal Epitope
BioChem 2021, 1(2), 81-97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biochem1020008 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
The α-Gal epitope is an immunogen trisaccharide structure consisting of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)β1,4-galactose (Gal)α1,3-Gal. It is presented as part of complex-type glycans on glycoproteins or glycolipids on cell surfaces of non-primate mammalians. About 1% of all antibodies in human sera are specific toward [...] Read more.
The α-Gal epitope is an immunogen trisaccharide structure consisting of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)β1,4-galactose (Gal)α1,3-Gal. It is presented as part of complex-type glycans on glycoproteins or glycolipids on cell surfaces of non-primate mammalians. About 1% of all antibodies in human sera are specific toward α1,3-Gal and are therefore named as anti-α-Gal antibodies. This work comprises the purification and characterization of anti-α-Gal antibodies from human immunoglobulin G (IgG). A synthetically manufactured α Gal epitope affinity resin was used to enrich anti-α-Gal antibodies. Selectivity experiments with purified antibodies were carried out using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), Western blotting, and erythrocyte agglutination. Furthermore, binding affinities toward α-Gal were determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the IgG distribution of anti α Gal antibodies (83% IgG2, 14% IgG1, 2% IgG3, 1% IgG4) was calculated applying ELISA and immunodiffusion. A range of isoelectric points from pH 6 to pH 8 was observed in 2D gel electrophoresis. Glycan profiling of anti α Gal antibodies revealed complex biantennary structures with high fucosylation grades (86%). Additionally, low amounts of bisecting GlcNAc (15%) and sialic acids (13%) were detected. The purification of anti-α-Gal antibodies from human IgG was successful, and their use as detection antibodies for α Gal-containing structures was evaluated. Full article
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Review
The Treasury Chest of Text Mining: Piling Available Resources for Powerful Biomedical Text Mining
BioChem 2021, 1(2), 60-80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biochem1020007 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Text mining (TM) is a semi-automatized, multi-step process, able to turn unstructured into structured data. TM relevance has increased upon machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms’ application in its various steps. When applied to biomedical literature, text mining is named biomedical [...] Read more.
Text mining (TM) is a semi-automatized, multi-step process, able to turn unstructured into structured data. TM relevance has increased upon machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms’ application in its various steps. When applied to biomedical literature, text mining is named biomedical text mining and its specificity lies in both the type of analyzed documents and the language and concepts retrieved. The array of documents that can be used ranges from scientific literature to patents or clinical data, and the biomedical concepts often include, despite not being limited to genes, proteins, drugs, and diseases. This review aims to gather the leading tools for biomedical TM, summarily describing and systematizing them. We also surveyed several resources to compile the most valuable ones for each category. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Analysis of Proteomes and Genomes)
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Review
Shugoshin: From the Perspective of Clinical Disorders
BioChem 2021, 1(2), 51-59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biochem1020006 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Proper and timely segregation of the cellular genome is a prime requirement of all cell division programs. Mis-segregation of chromosomes and the resulting aneuploidy lead to several clinical consequences. Over the years, shugoshin has emerged as a key protein factor involved in the [...] Read more.
Proper and timely segregation of the cellular genome is a prime requirement of all cell division programs. Mis-segregation of chromosomes and the resulting aneuploidy lead to several clinical consequences. Over the years, shugoshin has emerged as a key protein factor involved in the segregation of genetic material in dividing cells. Deletion or an altered level of shugoshin is reported in several human malignancies; as a result, shugoshin is now emerging as an important tumor-associated gene and a possible target for cancer therapy. Apart from its role in cancer, recent studies have also shown the involvement of shugoshin in several other clinical disorders. In this review, we aim to highlight the clinical relevance of shugoshin. Full article
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